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MUSIC 103 cumulative notes.docx

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University of Alberta
Michael Macdona

Nikhil Malhotra Music 103 Jan 10/12 Aesthetics Information  beauty Experiences in music - not all experiences are the same. - Different types of experiences: constructive experiences and deconstructive experiences Sound & Criticism Video: Sigur Rós music video We (the consumers) shape the music industry Beyond the basics (exam themes) - music and ethnicity/race - music and sexuality/gender - music and technology - music and industry “to grasp truth content is to be engaged in criticism.” – Adorno, Aesthetic Theory pg. 40 art is the manifestation of sense (and criticism) What is criticism? - Objective approach and subjective approach Types of listening - Casual listening o Listening to a sound to gather information about it’s cause/source - Semantic listening o Listening for the codes of language, it’s message - Reduced listening o Listening to the sound and rhythm, not the message or to gather info. January 17 , 2013 Different music = different reactions/effects Being affected is the art form Sounds A  B Vowels are sounds, consonants are noises Sound information  meaning Prof macdonald does not value memorization, this is not trivial pursuit Semantic connections are made by the individual, not the artist The invention of the phonograph meant that people could listen to music that isn’t live. A “concert” in your ear Music can be social. Record it then play it First jobs in the music industry consisted of songwriting. - They were high in demand. - The music industry was interested in selling sheet music to performers to perform the songs. If the performer was good, then they’d get a profit back. - After the invention of the phonograph, people were interested in buying “performances” because that meant they wouldn’t have to go see them live. - Today, we’ve gone from music being something physical, to music just being data. Lil Nipper - “his masters voice” HMV - lil nipper is listening to his masters voice because his master is dead, and he feels “nostalgia” - “recording can preserve sound that we no longer have access to” Moby – Natural Blues - Nostalgia - Sampled “troubled so hard” Tin pan alley - essentially songs made from smashing 2 pans together Selling the song - selling the song becomes “big business” - copyright o 1886 – music was copyrighted globally at the berne convention in 1886. If you had copyright in one country, you would now have copyright in all countries that were affected by the new copyright law o pirating emerged from reprinting cheap copies of books (way back) Popular music (1900s-present) -shows such as American idol and x factor don’t necessarily develop the artist, but more so of a market test. It’s the “guts of the music industry” - tin pan alley on stage. - considered to push against the dominance of white supremacy ___________(other) - way older than pop music category (before 1900s) The jazz age (20s) - defined mostly by “city style” - changed how people dressed - sense of liberation - new production practice. Clothes, cars, and entertainment were massed produced - the concern was mass production was going to “swallow us” - prohibition o Concerns that people are to free o Prohibiters believed urban civilization being root cause of all evils What is jazz? - Jazz is a type of musical expression that emerged from an unknown time period, but emerged from New Orleans - Jazz is an expression of music making that is as old has humans. It’s a natural expression of human nature. - Mix of orality and reading. It emerges outside of dominant culture (white masculine culture; colonizing culture) o This meant that majority of stuff taught in schools was “white culture” o “Whiteness” is not a category. It’s a position of power, and from the 50s they have dominated musical culture with “western European culture” What is swing? - it is a “feeling of things” - an approach to making music/sound Minor history - jazz style, jazz speech, jazz social codes. How do these become the definers of culture? How did it become sexy? Race records - anything that isn’t categorized as music (e.g. hillbilly music) Two faces of jazz - Western Art Music: contemplation - Enlightenment: transport your brain from room to room th January 24 , 2013 These themes will be heavily discussed in this class; they will help with you with your analysis - Race - Sexuality - Industry - Technology “Physicality is equated with blackness, intellectualism is equated with whiteness.” Semantic link - Semantic comes from the word se miosis, means that it comes from meaning - Making the link from one to the other - Side note: knowledge is built upon; as we experience things we make connections. Experiment of connections is something that is a part of creativity. - To break the semantic links, we will use deconstruction. o Jacques Derrida o When you deconstruct and then reconstruct, you learn - We make the connection from words to pictures subconsciously - Aural = listening - Oral = saying - Textual = writing - Mind ≠ brain. Our brain takes the information; our mind connects and interprets it. Popular music - The civil war o Broke up southern processes of production, ended slavery, reconstructed a series of social processes. o Race laws didn’t get eliminated. Race becomes entwined with the law in very different ways.  The Canadian mosaic. Written by John Gibbon. He had a picture of all the races of people in Canada, and described the advantages and disadvantages of each race. But this book excluded some races who had already settled here.  Nothing changed, except one thing. In the civil war, it was clear that race was a huge issue in the USA about race, but it wasn’t really discussed on.  “yes, we have no bananas!” o Al Jolson – Mammy  Blackface (white performers painting their faces black and performing stereotypical culture of black people) 1902 – W.E.B. Dubois - “the question of the century is going to be the question of the color line” - “white music” was called popular music. whatever wasn’t “white” music was known as a race record. 1900-1930s - The emergence of sub genres within race music. Hillbilly music, jazz were all race records. Heart of Darkness “.. all that mysterious life of the wilderness that stirs in the forest, in the jungles, in the hearts of wild men. There’s no initiation either into such mysteries. He has to live in the midst..” Country dancing - when it first emerged, it was different from court dancing and it was considered pretty risqué Waltz dancing - 1 2 3, 1 2 3 - very proper, only hands were touching. When it was introduced to the south, it was considered dirty. Wasn’t allowed in Europe. Eventually it caught on because it was the closest you’d be to the opposing gender - It broke the proximity barrier. Dancing at the minstrel show - European culture is brought back to North America, in a cleaner matter The cake walk - the first dance craze of north America - they forget it was originated from country dancing and the fact that the cake walk was created to mock the “white culture” - happening simultaneously with jazz Folk music - Emerged around the same time western art music did - 2 folk revivals o first one: invention of the term in the 18 century to describe the music that wasn’t classified as “art music” - the roots of nationalism: the fold - the songs of the folk are the songs of the nation Ballads - English and Scottish ballad collectors - The Child Ballads - John Lomax and the American Ballads o Collected cowboy ballads Hollywood Hillibillies - The banjo o It has a specific sound (ethnic and class relations) GENRE - Means style - They don’t emerge naturally, they emerge by demand January 31, 2013 The pop song - The basic energy for pop music is market driven. It emerged with the boom of IT and technological foundings - It became a commodity. Audio technology provided business people to sell music in new ways Before pop music - Tin pan alley synonymous with popular music in the 19 centuryh POP SONG and POPULAR MUSIC are different things Jazz has no origin, folk has no origin - jazz genres: swing, city blues, new Orleans brass, ragtime, - folk was part of nationalism. Western art music was western music then everything else was folk. Woody Guthrie - 1930s (during the great depression) - dust bowl - pop music was booming - From Oklahoma The commodification of hillbilly music - Guthrie took the hillbilly character and made it something to perform Code - Textural, aural, visual, and gestural o each of these contribute to meaning o understanding “coded language” Country Music (lol) - (on the genre chart, country music goes beside and under folk music. ) - Country builds on western themes of folk music. - Western, Texan, Albertan - 2 kinds of country music: o Family values music  The Carter family and the Cash family (Johnny Cash) o Montana slim o Dangerous, hooligan country music  Rambling music  Jimmie Rodgers: solitary rambler, dangerous, sexual, mischevious Chautauqua - imagine a circus of entertainment (speakers, demonstrators, technologies etc.) - travelled all over the place 1940s - “end of the 19 century” because the 19 century style didn’t die out till after the war. - The development of “mixing” sound o Before, if you wanted to be louder than a certain part of music (vocalist wanting to be louder than the instruments), you had to be upfront and loud. The loud people were popular and “killer” February 7 , 2013 Genre - It’s not a type of music. Genre is a system Sweet honey and the rock - Feminist singing group - Mostly acapella (no instruments only voice) 3 specific form of blues - country blues - city blues - delta blues When we hear music, the “codes” come out. These are inherited concepts that we have very little say over - Class - Race - Geography - Sex Walt Whitman - I Hear America Singing o About workers/working o Women were only mentioned for taking care of the house or household activities Harlem Renaissance - The artists begin to challenge the dominant white art scene in America (song, dance, norms) - It’s a new style, jazz and blues are included - Langston Hughes: I Too, Sing America challenged Walt Whitman’s poem - By the 30s most of the significant work was done, but it still continues till today - Django Reinhardt - Throughout the rise of the Nazis, jazz music becomes defiant Mamie smith (city blues) -Writing in the vernacular to give a certain message (cuz the man I love he don’t treat me right) W.C. handy The Blues: Strange fruit Feb 14 2013 Elvis Presley Rock and Roll Analysis - Identifying who is the speaker - Narrative “We Can Do It” poste - Women empowerment - 1940s - Sign that women can do work outside of the home Popularization of television 1930-1959 - most people didn’t have television till the 1950s - speed of information flow was remarkably different at this point - people who were running radio stations looked at TVs and found them more interesting and shifted their focuses to television suburban relocation - Geographical reorientation - Cultural reorientation - Social reorientation o How to behave o Moral education in school - People with money moved out of the central city to create this “suburban ring” around the city - “inner city” – downtown ghettoz Industrial relocation - Rise of the middle class and disposal income of teens - Teen market becomes important - TV and radio market to service suburbs Defining R&B - Ala
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