NURS103 Study Guide - Final Guide: Acute Stress Reaction, Coronary Artery Disease, Allostatic Load

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25 Aug 2016
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Stress, Physiology, Management, Undergraduate Mental Health
Stress= something leading to confusion and ambiguity
oIs not classified as a mental disorder but rather a risk factor associated with mental illness
Stressors= event that activates stress response systems (internal or external)
Aspects that influence response:
oIntensity
oScope
oDuration
oNumber and nature of other stressors
oPast exposure to individual stressors, and predictability.
Conceptualization of Stress
Physiological:
Walter Cannon= fight or flight response-> activate SAM system
Hans Selye= maladaptation and general adaptation syndrome (biological stress syndrome)
oStressed importance of pituitary and adrenal glands in process
oAlarm reaction= fight or flight
oResistance stage= alert and body defends against and adapts to stressor to maintain homeostasis
oExhaustion stage= extended period and used up ability to adapt, diverse health consequences
SAM system for behaviour and immediate adaptation
Pituitary-adrenal axis for maintaining homeostasis
Homeostasis-> allostasis= serious stressors can change physiological set points
Allostatic load= physiological burden of repeated stressors and endured and heightened stress response system (stress
related disorders)
Psychological:
Richard Lazarus: person is under stress only if person evaluates event or circumstance as personally significant
Appraisal= ongoing perceptual process where person evaluates the personal significance
oPrimary= personal meaning
oSecondary= present stress, possible coping strategies
Coping= managing taxing circumstances, expending effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seek to
master, minimize, reduce, or tolerate stress or conflict
Crisis= when coping isn’t effective so person faces turning point in life and they must change
oDevelopmental= changing developmental levels
oSituational= based on the present
Aguilera’s crisis theory= [person can either advance or regress from crisis
Coping, perception, and responses are different for everyone depending on gender or age
Stress Response Systems
SAM-> increased HR, blood to CNS, increased BP, bronchodialation, and increased resp rate through E/NE
HPA-> CRH and ACTH-> glucocorticoids (cortisol) for long term stress
Stress and Immune System
Glucocorticoids-> powerful anti-inflammatory agents
Dysregulated or chronic activation of SAM and HPA systems-> increased risk of stress related illnesses
Can also lead to cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, metabolic syndromes, and autoimmune disease
Relationship Between Type of Stressor and Health
Selye= 2 types of stress: distress (damaging) and eustress (protects health)
Eustress= motivating energy, positive, healthy adaptation
Trauma= physical damage or psychological (fear, threat, and persistent reliving)
Post-traumatic growth= positive psychological experience from a struggle
Stress Related Disorders
Prolonged exposure-> overwhelms ability to cope
Symptoms may have significant impact on individual’s functioning and relationship w/ others
Early emerging stress related symptoms= poor sleep, tension, jitteriness, inability to concentrate, and day to day activities
are affected
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