NURS103 Study Guide - Final Guide: Problem Solving, Ossification, Visual Acuity

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25 Aug 2016
School-aged Children
School-aged children and adolescents lead demanding and challenging lives
Changes occur between 6-19 years
Physical, psychosocial, cognitive, and moral skills are developed, expanded, refined, and synchronized
Environment also diversifies and expands
Environment= family, close friends, school, community, and religious institution
Increasing skill and knowledge base and environmental expansion-> new difficulties and dilemmas
Direct school-aged children and adolescents toward normal developmental behaviours-> improving their abilities and using them to
Describe their feelings about changes and think through them
Problem solving-> more purposeful and sophisticated and results in achievement of outcomes that they desire
Meet challenge of developing cognitive skills that enhance their reasoning and allow them to learn to read, write, and manipulate
Foundation for adult roles in work, recreation, and social interaction is laid
Puberty= at around 12, signals the end of middle child-hood
School/educational experience expands children's world and is a transition from a life of relatively free play to a life of structured play,
learning, and work
School and home influence growth and development, necessitating adjustment by parents and children
Cope w/ rules and expectations
Parents-> allow children to make decision, accept responsibility, and learn from life's experiences
Physical Changes
Rate of growth is slower but continues steadily
Appear slimmer-> changes in fat distribution and thickness
Growth accelerates at different times for different children
Average height increase is 5 cm per year
Average weight increase is 2-3 kg per year
Many children double their weight during these middle childhood years
School-> compare themselves w/ other kids
Physical examination-> influences of genetic endowment, nutrition, and exercise on height and weight
Boys are slightly taller and heavier than girls during these early school years
2 years before puberty-> rapid acceleration in skeletal growth
Girls generally reach puberty first-> begin to surpass boys in height and weight
Girls puberty: 9-13
Boys puberty: 11-14
HR averages= 75-100 beats/min
BP= 110/65 mmHg
Resp rate= 20-30 breaths/min
Lung growth is minimal and resp become slower, deeper, and more regular
Heart is 6x than birth and generally reach adult size
More graceful during the school years-> large muscle coordination improves their strength doubles
Running, jumping, balancing, throwing, and catching during play
At 6-> kids can print letters and words
At 12-> detailed drawings and write sentences in script
Painting, drawing, playing computer games, and making models-> encourage kids to do it
Independent in bathing, dressing, and taking care of other personal needs
Develop strong personal preferences in the way these needs are met
Illness and hospitalization threaten children’s control in these areas-> participate in care and maintain as much independence as
Assessment of neurological development is often based on fine motor coordination
Penmanship, stacking, and sequential, rapid alternation movement
Fine motor coordination is crucial for academic success for writing, computers, colouring, etc.
Steady skeletal growth in trunk and extremities occurs-> small and long bone ossification is present but not complete by age 12 years
Dental growth is prominent
First permanent or secondary teeth begin to erupt at approx. 6 years of age
Development of permanent teeth
Skeletal growth progresses, body appearance and posture change
Earlier posture: stoop-shouldered, slight lordosis and prominent abdomen-> changes to more erect
Check for scoliosis esp for girls after 12
Eye shape alters because of skeletal growth
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