NURS103 Study Guide - Final Guide: Chemotherapy, Main Source, Nutrient Density

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25 Aug 2016
Nutrition and Oral Hygiene
Shared responsibility among government, industry, health providers, and consumers
Food supplies energy to accomplish everyday activities, building and repairing tissues and regulating organs and systems while
helping to prevent the contraction of certain diseases and aid in the recovery from other disease
Protect and promote good health
Promote proper nutrition, diet therapy, and health continues to be vital
Poverty rates and unemployment are affecting nutrition rates
Increase in obesity as well especially in first nations
Body requires fuel to provide energy for chemical reactions-> cellular growth, repair, organ function, and body movement
BMR= energy requirement of a person at res
Life sustaining activities= breathing, circulation, HR, temp
REE= baseline energy requirement accounting for 60-75% of our daily needs
Kcal= unit of energy to raise 1 kg of water by 1C
Nutrients= elements supplied by food necessary for body processes and function
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, vitamins, and minerals
Essential if body can't manufacture it in sufficient quantity to meet metabolic demands
Nutrient density= proportion of essential nutrients to # of kilocalories
Fruits and vegs= high nutrient density foods
Alcohol and refined sugar= low nutrient density foods
Foods: functional, fortified, or genetically modified
Fortified= vitamins or minerals added
Genetically modified= pasting genes of 1 organism into another to resist disease and develop characteristics
Carbohydrates: recommended main source of energy
o4 kcals
oMain source of fuel= glucose
oTo brain, skeletal muscles, RBC and WBC production, and cell function of renal medulla
oSimple carbs= sugars
oComplex carbs= starch
oDecreases LDL cholesterol
oGlycemic index= effect on blood glucose levels and insulin response
Proteins: essential for synthesis (building of body tissue in growth, maintenance, and repair
oCollagen, hormones, enzymes, immune cells, DNA, and RNA
oBlood clotting, fluid regulation, and acid base balance
oEssential AA= body can't synthesize but must have provided in diet
oNonessential AA= synthesized body
oAA linked by peptide bonds
oProtein quality= balance of essential AA
oSimple + complex proteins lipoprotein
oComplementary proteins= pairs of incomplete proteins-> supply total amount of protein
oOnly nutrient w/ nitrogen
oNitrogen balance= intake and output of nitrogen are equal
o+ Nitrogen balance-> growth
oNitrogen retained-> building, repair, and replacement of body tissues
oNitrogen balance-> trauma
Fats: more calories
oServes as fuel, cushions, lubricants, and insulates
oTrans FA= partial hydrogenation of veg oils-> prepared foods
oTrans fat raise LDL and lowers HDL
oCholesterol= sterol not triglyceride
oSynthesized in liver
Water: cell function depends on fluid movement
oYou can't survive w/out water
oAquaporins= various water transport proteins
Vitamins: organic substances essential to normal metabolism
o Unable to synthesize most vitamins in the required amounts
oFat soluble= A, D, E, K-> can be stored in the body except for D
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