NURS407 Study Guide - Final Guide: Hepatic Encephalopathy, Serum Albumin, Portal Hypertension
Serum enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, serum aminotransferase: alt, ast, ggt most frequently used tests. Alt increases primarily in liver disorders and can monitor hepatitis or cirrhosis. Ast is present in tissue that have high metabolic activity (increased if damaged) Serum concentrations of proteins (albumin, globulins: bile formation, bilirubin excretion. Protein metabolism: drug metabolism, bilirubin, ammonia, clotting factors (pt/inr, lipids. Consequences of liver disease: biliary system: types of jaundice: Portal hypertension & increased capillary pressure and obstructed venous flow contribute. Failure of liver to metabolize aldosterone na & water retention, increased intravascular fluid, decreased albumin synthesis fluid from vascular space into peritoneal space. Systemic viral infection, in which necrosis and inflammation of liver cells produce characteristic cluster of clinical, biochemical, cellular changes: fecal-oral transmission (primarily by food infected with virus, prevention: hand-washing, safe water supplies, control of sewage disposal, hav vaccine. May be given immune globulin within 2wks exposure to provide 6-8wks passive immunity.