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PHIL101- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 47 pages long!)


Department
Philosophy at St Joseph's College
Course Code
PHIL101
Professor
Marie- Eve Morin
Study Guide
Final

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U of A
PHIL101
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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What is philosophy?
- Philo-Sophia; Philo=love, desire or affinity for. Sophia=wisdom
A love or desire for wisdom
- Curiosity, and wanting to know more.
The kind of curiosity is different in Philosophy than from other classes. We ask “deep”
fundamental questions that are not asked in any other courses. (The things you do not
normally think about)
1) Ie: Medicine; cure disease to prolong life...In philosophy we ask what is life? Is
life worth living?
2) Physics; cause of a phenomena (ie thunder)...In phil. We ask what is casualty?
Does everything have a cause? Are humans Free?
3) Computer science; Build computer programs...In phil. We ask what is mind?
Does a computer think?
-Everyday life; sit on chairs, talk to people, see green trees, think murder is wrong, give
money to charity, may believe in god, etc (these shows you have beliefs and thoughts).
-Why do we think these? How do we know we are right…?
-Ie; Is murder always wrong? What do we mean when we say murder? Do we have a
duty to obey the law? Is the law unjust? We will question the justice system…
-These are the kinds of questions we will be asking.
-Phil is not about the answers, but about the questions.
Why do you think that?
What do you mean by that?
-What’s the point if there is no answers?...To reflect and question our beliefs in order to
realize we do not know anything, to unlearn things, and become more aware of the
world around us by this questioning. We will be challenged and unsettled.
-Puzzlement or confusion is good in beliefs and philosophy as we will be more open to
new concepts and ideas, we become more humble, we ask more questions, and stop
trying to convince people.
-You may not change your position, but we will see the complexity of the issue, and be
more clear of our perspective (our Why).
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If there is no answer can i say whatever I want?
- Yes, but you must defend your side
- Defend = reasons
- Reasons = things you say to convince others
Not All reasons are Good….
Bad reasons (most common) and what not to do;
- Use Force
- Appeal to emotion and not reason; ie agree with me or I won’t be your friend, or
world vision commercials
- Appeal to popularity
- Appeal to tradition (how we used to do things so it’s right…)
- Appeal to authority
- Ad hominem (attack the person). Attack the reason or argument, not the person.
This weekend, try to catch people or other people appealing to ‘bad reasons’
In this class you will need to be willing to;
- Take a stand
- Defend your position (with good rational arguments. No “I’m entitled to my
opinion” or “that’s how I feel”)
- Accept positions with stronger reasons (be open to other position and reasons)
Why read texts?
- to read about other philosophers reasons in order to think outside the box.
(enlarge the discussion)
- Well thought out positions. some distance from our own world and the positions
we are reading (someone at different age, sex, geographical location, wealth,
experience, etc).
When you read you have to;
- Try to understand
- Engage with the text (why does the author think this? What are his or her
reasons?)
- Don’t reject or accept a text without thinking about the reasons…
Socrates and Plato
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