Dr. Kostelecky - Philosophy 249 - 4

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University of Alberta
Matthew Kostelecky

PHILOSOPHY 249 JOHN DUNS SCOTUS "UNIVERSALS AND INDIVIDUATION" "i understand a nature to have a real unity less than numerical unity." after abelard, universals cease to be a metaphysical problem the way it was for boethius, william of champeaux, etc with abelard it turns into a problem of semantics after abelard no one is a realist anymore. when we get to aquinas, he is trying to integrate aristotle with christianity aquinas is deeply informed by aristotle's metaphysics NOW WE WILL LOOK AT UNIVERSALS NOT LIKE BOETHIUS AND NOT AS SEMANTIC, BUT AS HOW DO YOU GO FROM A UNIVERSAL TO A PARTICULAR? not what is a universal, does it exist, is it real? with aquinas we go from UNIVERSAL to PARTICULAR. so how do we go from human to socrates, or horse/ass to browny since aquinas is really into physics and de anima, the way the earlier figures could not be influenced... for aristotle everything is composed of FORM and MATTER. 1ST ACTUALITY, POTENTIALITY, 2ND ACTUALITY. socrates has a different set of potentialities than a chair the kind of actuality you have determines those potentialities. aristotle takes this into an analysis of life itself FORM > ACTUALITY > SOUL MATTER > POTENTIALITY > BODY that means body and soul are really one thing, as opposed to platonic understanding where there are two things, a soul thing and a body thing. so HUMAN is a form. HORSE is a form. how do you go metaphysically from human to socrates or horse to browny. how is it PARTICULARIZED? by its MATTER. what makes us different individually? it shifts fro
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