ST. THOMAS AQUINAS
HE IS ASKING: OF WHATARE THINGS COMPOSED?
There must be some kind of composition or else there wouldn't be diﬀerent things. He assumes a compositionality.
Then what are things composed of.
Now let's ﬁgure out what the constitutive principles of things are.
On Being and Essence , extrordinarily terse and compact account of the constitutive principles of things.
His physical theory concerns elements and such, and that plays into this metaphysical theory. But really if we have
his metaphysical theory we can see how it reads into modern physical theory (ie chemistry, physics, etc)
We are inquiring into the basic metaphysical constitutive principles that make up things...
SOCRATES & BROWNY
what it is that makes browny browny...?
- form will give us the species (or quiddity)
- matter will individuate (make browny diﬀerent from other donkies)
- form gives us the unity between individuals of a species.
- the form is the soul. the soul of browny and bluey are substantia▯y the same because the soul is the same until it
has matter that provides individuality.
yes, matter is the principle of individuation, but what is matter meant to mean in a larger way of speaking?
BODY MATTER - POTENTIALITY
SOUL FORM - ACTUALITY
UNIVERSAL HYLOPMORPHISM - this is what Aquinas is arguing against
Aristotle is considered the ﬁrst person to put forward the idea of hylomorphism: all material is made up of matter
Bonaventure thought that even angels were made of form and (spiritual) matter (to preserve teh distinction
between angels and God (god is not form or matter)) and aquinas thoght this was bad philosophy.
- the principle of individuation
- the condition of possibility for change
- pure potentiality (but of course matter can't be pure potentiality. even god does not understand 'prime matter'
because matter cannot be without form), you can only have knowledge of this by analogy.
all have two constitutive principles: MATTERAND FORM
but you get very diﬀerent things according to the actuality (form) the thing is. the diﬀerences among things of the
same form is created by the disposal of the matter.
but we haven't even mentioned BEING or ESSENCE yet...
ALL MATERIAL THINGS HAVE ATWO FOLD DISTINCTION:
there are two ways to speak about two things (we will end up with four things)
1. FORM &