JOHN DUNS SCOTUS
of the four causes, material, formal, eﬃcient, and ﬁnal, we are only talking about eﬃcent causes here. eﬃcient
cause: for a house, it would be the builder. (material would be lumber, formal would be the shape, and ﬁnal would
be for living in it).
| PER SE CAUSE - marigold makes a marigold. generates a new thing of its own essence.
| ACCIDENTAL CAUSE - marigold is next to ﬁre and is now a hot marigold. changes accidental feature.
Per Se Cause, the eﬀect is like its cause
Accidental Cause, its eﬀect is not like its cause
as the ﬁre moves near the cotton, the cotton is getting hotter (this is accidental cause), and then catches on ﬁre
(this is per se cause).
SECOND THING (diﬀerent from ﬁrst thing)
| PER SE ORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES (ESSENTIALLYORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES)
| PERACCIDENS ORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES (ACCIDENTALLYORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES)
Jaroslav made Ron. Ron made Matt. Matt made Isaac. This is an Accidentally ordered series of causes and eﬀects.
Jaroslav has died. But Ron did not stop existing. Nor did Matt. This is an ACCIDENTALLYORDERED SERIES
OF CAUSES. once caused, the eﬀect continues even if the cause does not.
Think of a coal power plant. When the coal is burned, it makes heat, boils water, steam is made and hits a turbine, spins
magnets, generates electicity, and that a▯ows the light to be o▯. If you cross out water, it is all gone. This is an
ESSENTIALLYORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES. All the eﬀects that come later in the series require the causes
ahead of them to continue.
SCOTUS IS SAYING THE NATURE OF GOD IS A PER SE (ESSENTIALLY) ORDERED SERIES OF
CAUSES & EFFECTS. and this is also what Kostelecky think is happening in Aquinas.
pull back to Thomas: unmoved mover is God in the First Way. he says a stick moves another stick but the hand
moves the ﬁrst stick. so you take the ﬁrst stick out and the second stick stops moving though the hand continues
moving. this is an essentially ordered series of causes.
God is the ﬁrst here... a stick can't move a stick can't move a stick can't move a stick without something at the very
beginning moving the ﬁrst stick. This is why per se ordered series of causes cannot go on inﬁnitely, there must be a
so in order for motion to be what motion is, there must be some relation to something ﬁrst moving. and the ﬁrst
thing is actually God's will to move the things.
p.560 for question 8 of ﬁnal...
Essentially / Per Se Ordered series of causes. one of these is out, E stops happening. This can't go back forever,
inﬁnitely, because the C needs to be there. The C needs to be INDEPENDENTof the chain it is ordering. A cause
cannot cause itself.
C => e/c => e/c => e/c = E
"For the whole collection of dependent things is dependent, and not dependent on anything belonging to that
collection. Second, because [if there were an inﬁnity of essentially ordered causes], inﬁnitely many causes—
essentially ordered causes, that is—would be in actuality simultaneously, as follows from the third diﬀerence
YOU MUSTADMITTHAT CAUSES AND EFFECTS ARE LINEAR. AN EFFECT
ALWAYS FOLLOWS A CAUSE.
the initial cause cannot be cau