Dr. Kostelecky - Philosophy 249 - 18

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHIL249
Professor
Matthew Kostelecky
Semester
Fall

Description
PHILOSOPHY 249 JOHN DUNS SCOTUS of the four causes, material, formal, efficient, and final, we are only talking about efficent causes here. efficient cause: for a house, it would be the builder. (material would be lumber, formal would be the shape, and final would be for living in it). FIRSTTHING ——— | PER SE CAUSE - marigold makes a marigold. generates a new thing of its own essence. | ACCIDENTAL CAUSE - marigold is next to fire and is now a hot marigold. changes accidental feature. ——— Per Se Cause, the effect is like its cause Accidental Cause, its effect is not like its cause as the fire moves near the cotton, the cotton is getting hotter (this is accidental cause), and then catches on fire (this is per se cause). SECOND THING (different from first thing) ——— | PER SE ORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES (ESSENTIALLYORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES) | PERACCIDENS ORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES (ACCIDENTALLYORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES) ——— Jaroslav made Ron. Ron made Matt. Matt made Isaac. This is an Accidentally ordered series of causes and effects. Jaroslav has died. But Ron did not stop existing. Nor did Matt. This is an ACCIDENTALLYORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES. once caused, the effect continues even if the cause does not. Think of a coal power plant. When the coal is burned, it makes heat, boils water, steam is made and hits a turbine, spins magnets, generates electicity, and that a▯ows the light to be o▯. If you cross out water, it is all gone. This is an ESSENTIALLYORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES. All the effects that come later in the series require the causes ahead of them to continue. SCOTUS IS SAYING THE NATURE OF GOD IS A PER SE (ESSENTIALLY) ORDERED SERIES OF CAUSES & EFFECTS. and this is also what Kostelecky think is happening in Aquinas. pull back to Thomas: unmoved mover is God in the First Way. he says a stick moves another stick but the hand moves the first stick. so you take the first stick out and the second stick stops moving though the hand continues moving. this is an essentially ordered series of causes. God is the first here... a stick can't move a stick can't move a stick can't move a stick without something at the very beginning moving the first stick. This is why per se ordered series of causes cannot go on infinitely, there must be a first. so in order for motion to be what motion is, there must be some relation to something first moving. and the first thing is actually God's will to move the things. p.560 for question 8 of final... Essentially / Per Se Ordered series of causes. one of these is out, E stops happening. This can't go back forever, infinitely, because the C needs to be there. The C needs to be INDEPENDENTof the chain it is ordering. A cause cannot cause itself. C => e/c => e/c => e/c = E "For the whole collection of dependent things is dependent, and not dependent on anything belonging to that collection. Second, because [if there were an infinity of essentially ordered causes], infinitely many causes— essentially ordered causes, that is—would be in actuality simultaneously, as follows from the third difference above." YOU MUSTADMITTHAT CAUSES AND EFFECTS ARE LINEAR. AN EFFECT ALWAYS FOLLOWS A CAUSE. the initial cause cannot be cau
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