Psychology 104: Basic
Introduction (Chapter 1)
• What is Psychology? the scientiﬁc study of
mind and behaviour
What is Mind?
• What is Behaviour?
2 Psychology as a Career
American PsychologicalAssociation (APA)
• American Psychological Society (APS) began
Psychological Science (2006)ation for
• Physiological psychologists - underlying
processes using animal models
• Cognitive neuroscientists - underlying
processes using neural imaging
• Chronic jet-lag → higher stress hormones
→ brain damage → decreased cognitive
Learning in C.elegans
5 Genes to behaviour
6 Toy preference in humans
7 Comparative Psychology
• Using animal models
• Phylogeny,adaptiveness,development of
8 Comparative Psychology
9 10 Cognitive Psychology
Mental processes - perception,attention,
• reasoning,problem solving,learning,
May use computer models
11 Cognitive Psychology
• Each card has a number on one side,and a letter
on the other. Which card(s) must be turned over
to test the idea that if a card shows an vowel on
one side,then its opposite side is an even number?
12 Cognitive Psychology
• Is it true that no one under 18 is drinking
13 Cognitive Psychology
Green Red Blue
Purple Blue Purple
Blue Purple Red
Green Purple Green
The Stroop effect is the ﬁnding that naming the colour of the ﬁrst set of
words is easier and quicker than the second.
In psychology, the Stroop effect is a demonstration of interference in
the reaction time of a task. When the name of a color (e.g., "blue,"
• Changes over a lifetime
• Cognitive development - isADHD
developmental stage or pathology?
15 Social Psychology
• Behaviour in a group
• Also cultural psychology
16 Personality Psychology
• Underlying individual patterns of behaviour,
jealousy),psychoticism (aggressiveness and
17 Applied Psychology
• Clinical - treatment of symptoms of
• Different therapeutic approaches
18 The Major Subﬁelds in Psychology
19 The Proportion of Ph.D s
Earned byW omen
20 Some research -
St.Clair,CC,RC St.Clair andTD
kleptoparasitism by Glaucous-
winged Gulls limit the reproductive
success ofufted Pufﬁns? Auk
Jeff Foote, NOAA Paternity
Moodie,TC Lamey,GD Schnell,and “Monogamous” blackbirds. Up to 17% of
broods can be extra-pair paternity.
MN Moodie,1999.Species diversity Photo: Lucataxi at Italian Wikipedia
in male parental care in birds: A re-
examination of correlates with
paternity. Auk 116:487-503 Penguins
•St.Clair,CC and RC St.Clair.1996.
Causes and consequences of egg loss in
Boag. 1995. Maternal infanticide in
crested penguins. Animal Behaviour.
Photo: Thomas Mattern
Photo: M. Murphy photo:Mike Baird
Energetic costs of siblicidal behaviour in cattle egret
chicks,R.St.Clair and D.Mock,Oklahoma Ornithological
Society 1994 Philosophical basis
• How does the mind work?
• Nativism (Plato)
• Philosophical empiricism (Aristotle)
Phlegmatic (top left) - calm,
Phlegmatic Choleric (top right) - easily angered,
T ask-oriented extroverts Sanguine (bottom left) - courageous,
Task-oriented introverts Melancholic (bottom right) -
People-oriented introverts despondent, sleepless, irritable
26 Mind and body (brain)
• Thomas Hobbes
27 Descartes’ hydraulic reﬂex model
Franz Joseph Gall
• Brain areas have
functions or modules.
29 Brain to Mind
Pierre Flourens (1794-1867)
• Paul Broca (1824-1880)
30 History of Psychology
• Two original movements in Psychology:
• What is Structuralism?
• What is Functionalism?
• What is Physiology?
• Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
• Stimulus:sensory input from the
• Reaction time:the amount of time taken
to respond to a speciﬁc stimulus
32 First psychological
• WilhelmWundt (1832-1920)
• What is consciousness?
• Introspection:the subjective observation of one’s own
• EdwardTitchener (1867-1927) - elements of the mind
33 James and the Functional
• William James (1842-1910) wroteThe Principles of
• Charles Darwin (1809-1882) wrote On the Origin of
Species by Means of Natural Selection
Natural selection:the process by which
• inheritable traits of an organism that help it
survive and reproduce are passed on to
• G.Stanley Hall (1844-1924) founded theAmerican
Journal of Psychology
34 Fig 6.27
Darwin's Explanatory Model of Evolution by Natural Selection
Organisms have great potential
fertility, which permits
exponential growth of
(Source: Thomas Malthus)
Natural populations normally Inference 1
do not increase exponentially A struggle for existence
but remain fairly constant in occurs among organisms
size. in a population.
(Source: Charles Darwin and (Source: Thomas Malthus)
Inference 2 Inference 3