PSYCO104-1 Introduction.pdf

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Dragos Hrimiuc

Psychology 104: Basic Psychological Processes Introduction (Chapter 1) 1 Psychology • What is Psychology? the scientific study of mind and behaviour What is Mind? • • What is Behaviour? 2 Psychology as a Career American PsychologicalAssociation (APA) • • American Psychological Society (APS) began Psychological Science (2006)ation for 3 Biological,Physiological, Neuroscience • Physiological psychologists - underlying processes using animal models • Cognitive neuroscientists - underlying processes using neural imaging • Chronic jet-lag → higher stress hormones → brain damage → decreased cognitive ability 4 Physiological Psychology Learning in C.elegans 5 Genes to behaviour 6 Toy preference in humans 7 Comparative Psychology • Using animal models Ethology,Animal Behaviour • • Phylogeny,adaptiveness,development of behaviour 8 Comparative Psychology 9 10 Cognitive Psychology Mental processes - perception,attention, • reasoning,problem solving,learning, language,emotion May use computer models • 11 Cognitive Psychology • Each card has a number on one side,and a letter on the other. Which card(s) must be turned over to test the idea that if a card shows an vowel on one side,then its opposite side is an even number? 12 Cognitive Psychology • Is it true that no one under 18 is drinking beer? 13 Cognitive Psychology Green Red Blue Purple Blue Purple Blue Purple Red Green Purple Green The Stroop effect is the finding that naming the colour of the first set of words is easier and quicker than the second. In psychology, the Stroop effect is a demonstration of interference in the reaction time of a task. When the name of a color (e.g., "blue," 14 Developmental Psychology • Changes over a lifetime • Adolescence,senescence • Cognitive development - isADHD developmental stage or pathology? 15 Social Psychology • Behaviour in a group • Also cultural psychology 16 Personality Psychology • Underlying individual patterns of behaviour, thought,and emotion • Unconsciousness/consciousness • Extraversion-introversion,neuroticism (anxiety,moodiness,worry,envy and jealousy),psychoticism (aggressiveness and interpersonal hostility) 17 Applied Psychology • Clinical - treatment of symptoms of psychological disorders • Educational,industrial,community,family etc. • Different therapeutic approaches 18 The Major Subfields in Psychology 19 The Proportion of Ph.D s Earned byW omen 20 Some research - Kleptoparasitism St.Clair,CC,RC St.Clair andTD Williams.2001.Does kleptoparasitism by Glaucous- winged Gulls limit the reproductive success ofufted Puffins? Auk 118(4):934-943. Jeff Foote, NOAA Paternity Schwagmeyer,PL,RC St.Clair,JD Moodie,TC Lamey,GD Schnell,and “Monogamous” blackbirds. Up to 17% of broods can be extra-pair paternity. MN Moodie,1999.Species diversity Photo: Lucataxi at Italian Wikipedia in male parental care in birds: A re- examination of correlates with paternity. Auk 116:487-503 Penguins •St.Clair,CC and RC St.Clair.1996. Causes and consequences of egg loss in rockhopper penguins,Eudyptes chrysocome.Oikos 77:459-466. •St.Clair,CC,JWaas,R St.Clair,PT Boag. 1995. Maternal infanticide in crested penguins. Animal Behaviour. 50:1177-1185. Photo: Thomas Mattern Photo: M. Murphy photo:Mike Baird Energetic costs of siblicidal behaviour in cattle egret • chicks,R.St.Clair and D.Mock,Oklahoma Ornithological Society 1994 Philosophical basis • How does the mind work? • Nativism (Plato) • Philosophical empiricism (Aristotle) 25 Choleric Sangui Melancholic ne Phlegmatic (top left) - calm, unemotional Phlegmatic Choleric (top right) - easily angered, bad tempered T ask-oriented extroverts Sanguine (bottom left) - courageous, hopeful, amorous Task-oriented introverts Melancholic (bottom right) - People-oriented introverts despondent, sleepless, irritable People-oriented extroverts 26 Mind and body (brain) René Descartes • (1596-1650) • Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679):argued against Descartes. 27 Descartes’ hydraulic reflex model 28 Phrenology Franz Joseph Gall • (1758-1828) • Brain areas have localized,specific functions or modules. 29 Brain to Mind Pierre Flourens (1794-1867) • • Paul Broca (1824-1880) 30 History of Psychology • Two original movements in Psychology: • What is Structuralism? • What is Functionalism? 31 Structuralism:Physiology and Psychology • What is Physiology? • Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) • Stimulus:sensory input from the environment • Reaction time:the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus 32 First psychological laboratory • WilhelmWundt (1832-1920) • What is consciousness? • Introspection:the subjective observation of one’s own experience • EdwardTitchener (1867-1927) - elements of the mind 33 James and the Functional Approach • William James (1842-1910) wroteThe Principles of Psychology • Charles Darwin (1809-1882) wrote On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection Natural selection:the process by which • inheritable traits of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are passed on to subsequent generations • G.Stanley Hall (1844-1924) founded theAmerican Journal of Psychology 34 Fig 6.27 Darwin's Explanatory Model of Evolution by Natural Selection Observation 1 Organisms have great potential fertility, which permits exponential growth of populations. (Source: Thomas Malthus) Observation 2 Natural populations normally Inference 1 do not increase exponentially A struggle for existence but remain fairly constant in occurs among organisms size. in a population. (Source: Charles Darwin and (Source: Thomas Malthus) many others) Inference 2 Inference 3
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