PEDS101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Biomolecule, Lipid Bilayer, Membrane Transport

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Physiology?
- Normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts
- Study of all the processes in a living organism “KNOWLEDGE OF NATURE”
Systems
1. Integumentary
2. Musculoskeletal
FOUR SYSTEMS THAT EXCHANGE MATERIALS FROM INTERNAL-EXTERNAL
3. Respiratory
4. Digestive
5. Urinary
6. Reproductive
FOUR SYSTEMS THAT EXTEND THROUGHOUT THE BODY
7. Endocrine
8. Circulatory
9. Nervous
10. Immune
Endocrine and nervous systems serves the same purpose but act in different ways, respond to stimulus
- Respond needed quickly- nervous- through neurons
- Respond okay slowly - endocrine- through hormones
Homeostasis
- Regulation of body’s environment - to remain stable, same
- NOT equilibrium
- If maintained, homeostasis established
- If not, disease sets in, pathophysiology ( physiology of abnormal parts, functional changes
associated w/ a disease)
- Levels maintained- doesn’t mean all levels everywhere are the same
- The body does not want equilibrium , wants a difference in concentration between external and
internal, and levels
- BODY IS A DYNAMIC STEADY
How does body maintain homeostasis?
- To maintain homeostasis, the body monitors certain key functions; BP, blood glucose concentration.
Input signal - integrating center (brain)- output signal - response
Local control - cells in the vicinity of change initiates the response
- A nearby cell/ group cells senses the change in their vicinity and responds usually by releasing a
chemical, the response is restricted to the region where the change took place.
Reflex control- distant site controls the response
- Changes that occur widespread throughout the body requires more of a systematic response.
(changes in bp). Uses nervous, endocrine system
Negative and positive feedback
N
- Response slows down stimulus, shuts down response
Initial S - response - stimulus
P
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- Stimulus increases actually increases response, outside factor needed to shut down.
Chapter 2
Biomolecules
- Organic molecules associated with living organisms
- Oxygen, hydrogen , Carbon
- Makes up 90% of body mass
- 4 major groups; Lipids (C,H) - Carbs ( C,H,O) - Protein (C,H,O,N) - Nucleotides (C,H,O,N)
NOT ALL MOLECULES ARE PURE PRO, CARBS, LIPIDS
Diff types of combined biomolecules
- Conjugated proteins - protein molecules combined with another biomolecule (lipoprotein)
- GLYCOSYLATED MOLECULES = definition: molecules to which carbs has been attached
- Proteins combined with carbs = glycoprotein , (glycolipids)
- FUNCTION OF BIOMOLECULES
- NRG and structural building block (lipids, CHO, protein)
- Store/ transmit genetic info (nucleic acids dna/rna) and NRG transfer (nucleotides ATP,ADP,cAMP)
- Atp related molecules- transfer energy, AMP related molecules regulate metabolism
Electrons (bonds)
Covalent bonds
- “Co” = joint
- Results when atoms share electrons, require the most energy to make/break
POLAR
NONPOLAR (even distribution of electrons, molecules composed with H & C tend to be nonpolar,
no larger molecule that can pull)
Non covalent bonds
- Facilitate reversible reactions, ph, molecular, shape)
- No joint, just attraction
Ionic (anions, cations)
- Electrostatic attractions b/w ions
- Steals electrons, gives electrons
Hydrogen bonds
- Form b/w a hydrogen atom and nearby oxygen,nitrogen, or fluorine atom.
- Polar regions of adjacent water molecule allows them to form hydrogen bonds with another
- Water molecule - covalent , water molecule + water molecule - non covalent (just attraction but can
be broken apart)
Van der Waals forces
- Forces are weak, non specific attractions between ions
Solute - any substance that dissolves in a liquid, more easily a solute dissolves, the higher its
solubility( sugar )
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Solvent- the liquid into which solutes dissolve (water)
Solution- combination of solutes in a solvent ( sugary water)
Concentration = solute amount/ volume of solution
Solubility= the ability for a given the solute to dissolve in a solvent
Hydrophilic
- Dissolve easily in water (eg NaCl)
Hydrophobic
- Repel water molecules. (eg cholesterol)
All our cells have a membrane around it protects - phospholipid molecules
It has a polar (hydrophilic) head, and nonpolar(hydrophobic) tails
They arrange themselves so that polar head faces water
This characteristics allows the phospholipid membrane to form bilayers, the basis for biological
membranes that separate compartments
Proteins
- The body’s workhorse
- NON COVALENT interactions b/w biomolecules often involve PROTEINS
Categories of Proteins
- Enzymes ( some proteins acts as enzymes to speed up rxn)
- Membrane transporters ( P. in cell membrane help move substances from and to extracellular and
inter. compartments)
- Signal molecules (act as hormones)
- Receptors (P that bind signal molecules and initiate cellular response)
- Binding proteins ( found mostly in extracellular, bind and transport molecules throughout the body)
- Immunoglobulins ( extra. Immune proteins called antibodies)
- Regulatory proteins (turn cell process on and off)
Protein interactions
- Protein binds to other biomolecules through noncovalent interactions
- Protein binding reactions are reversible
- Binding takes place on ‘binding site”
Ligand - Any molecule/ion that binds to another molecule
Substrates - ligands that bind to enzymes are membrane transporters
Binding properties
1. Chemical Specificity
- Ability of a protein to bind to a certain ligand
- Shape and charge distribution of a binding protein determines which ligand it will bind (charge -
opposite attract)
- The amino -acid sequence of a protein determines both shape and the distribution of charge
2. Affinity
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Document Summary

Normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts. Study of all the processes in a living organism knowledge of nature . Four systems that exchange materials from internal-external: respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive. Four systems that extend throughout the body: endocrine, circulatory, nervous, immune. Endocrine and nervous systems serves the same purpose but act in different ways, respond to stimulus. Respond okay slowly - endocrine- through hormones. Regulation of body"s environment - to remain stable, same. If not, disease sets in, pathophysiology ( physiology of abnormal parts, functional changes associated w/ a disease) Levels maintained- doesn"t mean all levels everywhere are the same. The body does not want equilibrium , wants a difference in concentration between external and internal, and levels. To maintain homeostasis, the body monitors certain key functions; bp, blood glucose concentration. Input signal - integrating center (brain)- output signal - response. Local control - cells in the vicinity of change initiates the response.