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Course Notes for PEDS 203 (got 93% on Final)

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Physical Education and Sport
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January 10, 2012 Chapter 1: Intro to Motor Performance & Learning Motor Skill: skill for which the primary determinant of success is the quality of movement 1. As identifiable motor task- interested in classifying various tasks (Task Perspective) 2. As feature separating higher vs. lower level performers (Performance proficiency) January 12, 2012 Motor Skill Classification Movement Precision: -Gross: Involving larger muscle groups •Less emphasis on precision and are typically the result of multi-limb movements •Ex. Cycling -Fine: Skills involving very precise movements, accomplished using smaller (usually distal) muscle groups •Ex. Writing Task Organization: -Discrete Skill: Usually brief •Well-defined beginning and end •Prominent in context of many sports -Serial Skills: Several discrete actions linked together in a sequence •Order is crucial to success •Production requires longer time than discrete tasks -Continuous Skill: No distinct beginning and end •Ongoing, repetitive, cyclic in nature •Environmental barrier or marker determines duration of activity Relative Importance of Motor and Cognitive Elements: -Motor Skill: Less emphasis on perceptual or decision-making aspects of task •Ex. Weightlifting -Cognitive Skill: Nature of movement less important to performance success than decision or strategy dictating movement •Emphasizes knowing what to do •Ex. Chess Level of Environmental Predictability -Open Skill: Environment is unpredictable or in motion •Requires performer to adapt movement in response to dynamic properties of environment •Difficult to effectively predict future moves of others •Externally-paced, performer initiates movement according to environmental demand •Ex. Hitting ground strokes in tennis -Closed Skill: Environment is predictable or stationary •Can plan movements in advance •Self-paced, performer initiates movement at will •Ex. Throwing darts -Gentile’s two-dimensional classification system (16 possible task variations) (Table 1.4) •Regulatory Variability: Is environment stable/moving or not? •Context Variability: Is there any change in environment between attempts? Inter-trial variability •Top left closed skill, bottom right open skill Performance Proficiency: Guthrie -Maximum certainty of goal achievement: Reach task goal with maximum certainty -Minimum Energy Expenditure: Minimize or eliminate unwanted or unnecessary movements •Conserve energy for success •Reduce mental demand of task -Minimum movement time: Reduce time to perform task •Balance is needed or a speed accuracy trade-off •ex. time trial Motor Performance vs. Motor Learning -Motor Performance: Observable attempt of an individual to produce voluntary action •Can be influenced by transient factors (Ex. Motivation, arousal, fatigue, physical condition) -Motor Learning: Relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of practice •Changes in internal processes (capability) •Inferred from observation of stable levels of performance (repetition) -Implicit Learning: Improvements in capability of motor performance without awareness •During motor performance some type of learning takes place as well Fitts and Posner (1967): 3 stages (Don’t memorize dates) -Cognitive (trial and error): Thinking your way through skill -Associative (honing in): Associating relative components -Autonomous (free and easy): Automaticity Adams (1971): 2 stages -Verbal-motor: Talking your way through the skill -Motor: Less talk and more action -Closed-loop theory of motor learning (Feedback based learning) Gentile (1972): -Getting the idea of the movement: Different “ideas” depending on nature of skill -Fixation/Diversification: •Closed skills: Fixed set of regulatory conditions •Open skills: Diverse set of regulatory conditions **Newell (1985): -Coordination: Pattern acquisition -Control: Pattern adaptability -Dynamical Systems Approach: •Interaction neuromuscular system x environment •DoF(Degrees of freedom)- Freezing & Freeing •Self-organizing systems •As you progress through learning you increase degrees of freedom How do we Recognize the Stages? •Performance characteristics usually match learning levels •Important •Assessment by Outcome measures, Process measures -Response outcome measures: •Time to complete response •Distance •Amount of error, number errors •Time on/off target-pursuit rotor task •Trials to completion-# trials to correct response -Response Production Measures: •Limb location and trajectory over time •Limb coordination-temporal phasing •Velocity-body/limb •Acceleration- pattern while moving •Joint angle- angle-angle diagrams •EMG- muscle signal •EEG- brain signal during response -Situation-based approach: Emphasizing the context in which performance and learning takes place (aka Ecological Task Analysis) •Before assistance practitioners must consider: •Task- What •Individual- Who •Environment- Where •Many solutions to a given task *Newell’s Model of Constraints: •Individual Constraints: Functional and Structural •Environmental Constraints •Task Constraints Chapter 6: Individual Differences & Motor Control, January 19, 24 2012 Individual Differences: Stable, enduring differences among individuals’ performances, often attributable to differences in their abilities Experimental Approach: A method scientists use to examine factors that influence the performance or behavior of people generally Differential Approach: A method scientists use to examine differences among people Abilities: Stable, enduring traits that, for the most part, are genetically determined and that underlie a person’s skill in a variety of tasks. People differ with respect to their patterns of strong and weak abilities, resulting in differences in their levels of skill Skill: The underlying potential for performance in a given task, which changes with practice, experience, and a host of situational and environmental factors Singular Global Ability (General Ability): One global ability is basis for all skill performances (r=1) Specificity Hypothesis: A view proposed by Franklin Henry that a large number of distinct, specific, and independent motor abilities are the basis for each specific motor performance, lots of abilities (r=0) Groupings of Abilities: Many abilities, but some overlap between abilities and tasks, fewer than specificity hypothesis, (0.2
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