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Poli Sci 101- Midterm 2 Textbook Notes.docx

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Department
Political Science
Course
POL S101
Professor
Satish Joshi
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 4- Liberalism, Conservatism, Socialism and Fascism pg 77 Learning Objectives 1. Explain the meaning and significance of political ideology 2. Discuss the ideas of liberalism, conservatism, socialism and fascism 3. Outline the development and major variations of each ideology 4. Apply the terms "left" and "right" to the analysis of political perspectives Political Ideologies - Enlightenment: 18th C intellectual movement emphasizing human reason - Karl Marx (communism): *****SEE CHART ON PAGE 82 AND 83 LEFT RIGHT - greater social and economic - inequality EQUALITY - maintain tradition Liberalism: o Rule of Law: o Classical liberalism: limited government; free market place o Laissez-faire economics: private businesses, no government interference o reform liberalism (social liberalism, welfare liberalism):  support individual freedom  support also government assisting to remove obstacles for individual development  support free-enterprise  government should play role in assisting the disadvantaged through such measures as: • unemployment insurance • old age pension • health care • subsidized education  government action is needed to ensure equal right to freedom  greater emphasis on equality • particularly equality of opportunity • emphasizes it more than classical liberalism  share views with classical liberalism: • free-enterprise system • reform liberals argue that property right may need to be limited to some extent, in order to advance the rights and freedoms of others  John Maynard Keynes • government use power to make economy run smoothly  take communitarian approach rather than individualist approach  Neoliberalism: o neoliberalism: free market place; opposition to government intervention in economy o more towards laissez-faire economy with limited role of gov o gov services should be privatized where possible o taxes reduced o strict access to welfare o associated with contemporary conservatism Conservatism (reactionaries): o Edmund Burke o developed in response to the French Revolution o challenged the privileges of elites o promoted equality o promoted popular sovereignty o proclaimed "rights of man" o reactionaries: advocated a return to the values of the old order o Edmund Burke  change should be slow o conservative thinkers think humans are evil o traditional, religious The New Right (neo-conservative):  influential, contemporary form of conservatism  a perspective that combines the promotion of • free-market capitalism • limited government • traditional cultural and moral values • limited government (neo-liberalism) • traditional, cultural and moral values (social conservatism)  citizens face a cultural crisis because of the decline of traditional moral values  think criminals need to take responsibility for their own crimes vs (liberals- think that crimes are because of social injustices)  Problems with the New right :  New left: • sees marginalized in society. ex: o ethnic and racial minorities o youth o women o poor  - Socialism o see humans as social rather than self-interested o inequality because of economy, not because of humans o prefer a collective approach:  means of production  all work would be distributed equally o Marxism and Communism  Karl Marx and Frederick Engels termed Marxism • their analysis is termed historical materialism: assumption that historical development can be understood in terms of the way society is organized to produce material goods • argued that profits were based on exploitation of workers • working class, which developed due to industrialization o would become a revolutionary force o would overturn capitalist system o would replace it with social system • IN THIS PROCESS: • capitalists system is important but not the end of historical development o capitalist system is more productive than earlier system o it has an unplanned nature meaning that it cannot fully unleash the power of human productivity o prone to unemployment and depression o weak capitalists forced out of business --> leaving monopoly o because state acts in favor of capitalist class:  working class would have to capture control of state  would cause revolution  after revolution, workers would control state • "dictatorship of the proletariat"  would use state to rid the property of capitalists  the selfishness of economic systems would disappear o transition from socialism to communism:  everyone would be free to take whatever they need from society  production would be highly organized  state would not be needed  LENINISM • Vladimir Lenin, Russian Communist leader • capitalist system could be overthrown only by force o workers themselves cannot overthrow system o need disciplined party with revolutionary vanguard  COMMUNIST SYSTEM COLLAPSES • communist party control collapsed at end of 1980s • China still controlled by Communist party o has abandoned trying to create egalitarian communist society o Democratic Socialism  based on belief that only democratic methods should be used to work towards socialist society  rejection dictatorship of the proletariat  argue political rights and freedoms should be respected  government is needed to provide for well being of citizenry  public ownership of key industries + encouragement for co-operative enterprises  advocate government subsidization of various services  advocate redistribution of income and wealth from rich to poor • through tax system o Social Democracy  call themselves democratic socialists  includes the belief that the capitalist economy can be reformed to ensure that it works for the common good  advocate greater social and economic equality to achieve meaningful democracy  excesses of the free market capitalist system can be curtailed to provide a welfare state  globalization and neo-liberalism have created challenges for social democracy  some social democrats played a key role in developing the European Union  free-market policies + with human rights + environment  Tony blair tried to modernize social democracy through the "Third Way" • greater acceptance of free market • globalization • individualism o Anarchism:  means "without rule"  advocates elimination of state and private property • see state as oppressor  social anarchism: • advocate co-operative or communal society • instead of states, envision a world based on voluntary cooperation  favor "direct action" • ex. demonstrations • civil disobedience • street theatre • general strikes • rather than the establishment of political parties or voting  some anarchists support violence  "black bloc" – fought police in Toronto during G20 summit • anarchists? debateable.  anti-globalization? - Fascism o developed in WWI and WWII by people who were critical of Enlightenment o nationalism o belief in naturalness of inequality o oppose liberal democracy and communism - o Nationalism and Racism  well being of individual based on well being of state  owe absolute loyalty to state, hence state can control all of their activities to promote its interest  state is seen as a bond to common culture or ancestry  foreigners seen as minority culture and typically viewed as hindrance to creation of homogenous society  NAZISM • ideas of racial superiority and racial conflict were present o ex. thought Germans and Nordic people were heirs of Aryan race: seen as the superior race. Blue eyes, blonde hair. o thought Aryan race could be restored through breeding • wanted to eliminate Jews to get rid of inferior people • result was a genocide --> Holocaust o Belief in a Natural Inequality  fascists believe there is natural inequality in society  masses can be mobilized by skillful leaders through use of slogans and symbols  democrats = weak because have to out to get support  natural leaders are favored BOX 4-3 - The Holocaust - 1920s to 1930s, stirring up anti-Semitic prejudices o Rejection of the Enlightenment - apat ffascists assume people are motivated by emotion rather than by reason - coud breject idea that a part of common humanityion, political views - similar to Aboriginal popular in Americas and Rwandan genocide  force and struggle are inevitable  constant preparation for war is necessary  social Darwinist ideas, "survival of the fittest" o Corporate State  Mussolini's fascist regime adopted idea of corporate state • business and labor work together to advance nation • led to suppression of labour movement o A new order  fascism depicted as reactionary ideology – radical right wing ideology  fascists reject individualism and materialism because they see it as moral decay o The continuing Significance of Fascism and the Radical Right  fascism associated with Mussolini and Hitler  semi-fascists regimes remained in power until the 1970s  neo-fascist in many European countries • many parties have adopted racist policies, including encouraging non-European people to return to their home countries o Jobbik Party campaigns for Hungarian racial purity • the rise neo-fascist parties has encouraged more mainstream parties to make somewhat similar appeals • militia groups train for armed resistance to what they believe is a new world order conspiracy (UN, Illuminati, etc.) to take over the US Chapter 5: Newer Perspectives: Feminism and Environmentalism (pg 103) INTRO - A sheep had been nominated for title of Miss America - women were furious o a reporter who wanted to link Miss America demonstration to the Vietnam  Feminism: - believe all societies are characterized by patriarchy - feminism: a perspective that views society as patriarchal and seeks to achieve full  independence and equality for women - patriarchy: a system in which power is in the hands of men and many aspects of women's  lives are controlled by men - Background to feminism: o Aristotle and Plato viewed females as equal to males o The Declaration of the Rights of Man inspired the first feminist ideas o in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Mary Wollstonecraft rejected the idea  that it was a woman's natural role to please men and raise children  if women appeared more emotional and less concerned about the good of  the political community, it was a result of being deprived of opportunities  argued women have same capacity of rational thinking as men therefore  ­­> should have same rights as man o John Stuart Mill argued in the Subjection of Women:  thought women equal to men and therefore: • should have equal education opportunities • have a full set of civil and political rights for women o both Wollstonecraft and Mill advocated equal rights for women BUT they made  assumption that women were more likely to choose domestic life rather than paid  employment  thought that by being educated and equal: • women would be better at raising children • women would be happier • could interact more intellectually with husbands o earlier feminist, like those in Marxism and anarchism:  advocated the liberation of women from: • their domestic roles • and from traditional their traditional sexual constraints - Contemporary Feminism: o 3 Types: 1) Liberal Feminism 2) Socialist Feminism 3) Radical Feminism Glimpse/review in my own words  1) Liberal feminism Goal - More about what they want to achieve: education,  employment, rights, opportunities  Includes 1st wave of feminism  2) Socialist feminism Goal and Problem - goal:  want to be liberated - problem: are oppressed so need to get rid of capitalism and  patriarchy 3) Radical feminism Similar to socialist feminism Goal - want to liberate women so transform societal values  Includes 2nd wave of feminism - Liberal Feminism: o liberal feminism textbook definition: a version of feminism that advocates equal  opportunities for women in such areas as education and employment as well as  equal legal and political rights o more dominant in the latter part of 19th C and first decades of 20th C for equal  legal and political rights o often termed the "first wave" of feminism to the advocacy in areas of:  education  employment o Betty Frieden gives generic quote about feminism on page 107 o  for liberal feminists the key problem is discrimination against women that limit   their opportunities   o focus on ensuring women have:  freedom and opportunity in politics, business, careers and employment o have been successful to some degree in their focus  laws against women have been eliminated in countries  women are getting careers o BUT, women still under­represented in important positions - Socialist Feminism  o socialist feminism textbook definition: a version of feminism that views women  as oppressed by both the male­dominated character of society and the capitalist  system. The liberation of women is connected to the transformation of the  capitalism into a more co­operative and egalitarian socialist system o think liberation involves both:  struggle against patriarchy   AND the transformation of capitalism into a more cooperative and  egalitarian society  o with capitalism  women's household and child care is unpaid labour that is essential for  profitability of capitalism to ensure there is supply of labor in future  women provide "reserve army" of low cost labour for profit of capitalist  enterprises   argue that male­female relations reflect the exploitative relationship of   capitalists to workers • capitalist = boss • women = worker  think free, public child care + other domestic services ­­> conditions for  liberation of women  TABLE on page 108: Women in Parliaments, Selected Countries • DNTK: just for interest sake.    those influenced by Marxist version of socialism think : • struggle of working class women and men to overturn capitalism,  is needed to achieve women's liberation  most other socialist feminists: • do not accept the idea that: o the struggle of women should be subordinated to the  struggle of the working class • think overturning capitalism would NOT liberate women o ex. Soviet Union had strong commitment to the liberation  of women but never achieved this - Radical Feminism: o radical feminism textbook definition: a version of feminism that views society as  based fundamentally on the oppression of women and seeks to liberate women  through the fundamental transformation of social institutions, values and personal  relationships o BACKGROUND:  in 1960s­­> protest movements seeking changes in society and politics • women involved in these found that movements were male  dominated and did not respect women. Result ­­> o "second wave" of feminism (remember: first was in liberal  feminism)  women's liberation movement. Some included  radical feminism. o think patriarchal ideas affect women o male dominated in the state, family, schools, as well as: values, ideas, practices of  society o think patriarchy supported through violence o think sexism is the root of oppression o think that the struggle of women against oppression is revolutionary because has  potential to end various form of domination and subordination o Liberation:   the goal of radical feminism is liber tion  is at the core of liberal ideology  liberation: freeing the human potential that has been stifled by the  organization and values of society  oppression causes oppressed to adopt the ideas of the oppressor  those in the oppressor groups are also deprived because they are expected  to take the dominant role  in other words: think that what society defines to be male or female is  oppression to BOTH male and female  liberation is not ending male dominance in positions or in the power of  state but transformation of social institutions, values, and relationships  CRITICAL of wanting want equal rights, opportunities, education,  employment, government etc.   instead, argue women must organize separately from men to be free of  oppression • even though men may take part in women's liberation movements,  they may take dominant role and therefore be disliked - Feminism and Male­Female Differences (pg 110) o feminists reject the idea that biology causes differences between male and female  behavior  o say gender roles are socially constructed o traditionally: women seen as more passive and weaker o have suggested created an androgynous society (neither male or female. a mix of  both) o think society needs to transform to give more importance to women's values:  ex. nurturing, caring, cooperation, etc.  o women ­­> think more of themselves based on relationship with others or on  context o men ­­> moral judgments more on universally accepted principles of right/wrong o usually, male conceptions of morality are the standard which morality has been  judged on - Promoting Women's Identity (pg 111)  o radical feminists think it is important to develop a distinctive identity and culture  of women o some feminists are critical of the idea that women share a common identity  ex. black feminists say women of color suffer twice the amount of  oppression - Is Feminism Still Relevant? (page 112) o  disagreement about the extent to which women's movement has changed the  position of women o CHART on pg 112. DNTK. o women's movement seemed to falter in the 1980s:  backlash against feminism associated with the rise of the New Right  (particulary in US)  ex. in Canada:the National Action Committee on the Status of Women,  tore itself apart   ex. In Canada, second­wave organizations: • were criticized by women of color, lesbian and bisexual women for  not paying attention to the problem faced by different groups of  women o in the 1990s: third wave of feminism:  celebrates female values, beauty, etc.   not so different from the 2nd wave of feminism but tends to be  distinguished by its view that "differences among women are as  substantial as difference between women and men" and that "the category  of 'women' is no longer the only identity worth examining"  think society is still patriarchal: • in contrast to this view is the post feminist view: - post feminists view the cause of feminism to be won in some Western societies such that  women can empower themselves _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________ BOX 5­1 – "You've Come a Long Way, Baby?" - commercial for brand of cigarettes designed for women celebrated the advancement of  women - their slogan was seen as sexist: "You've come a long way, baby" - still debate about whether feminism achieved its goals or if society still patriarchal - feminists argue progress toward equality and liberation is limited - REPETITIVE STUFF... _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________ Environmentalism (pg 114) - environmentalism textbook definition: a perspective based on the idea that humanity  needs to change its relationship to nature so as to protect the natural environment and  ensure that it can sustain all forms of life - list of world's problems on page 114 - American biologist made case that synthetic pesticides were silencing the voices of birds  that heralded the coming of spring o ecology of Earth threatened by large scale production of chemicals  - series of environmental disasters (ex. oil spills) ­­> large environmental movement ­­>  environmentalism developed - environmentalism not just expressing concern for environment o it provides perspective on causes of environmental problems and vision of  environmentally sustainable world - think humans need to change relationship with nature: o instead of outside nature and dominating and controlling it, need to view  themselves as part of nature - is influenced by science of ecology - contrasts anthropocentrism (116): the focus on human well­being (that is at the centre of  most political thought) - advocates ecocentrism (116): the view that nature has intrinsic value and should not be  valued only in terms of its use for human beings - stronger environmentalists argue: o not just about developing better technology o instead, need fundamental economic, social and political changes too - Limits to Growth (pg 116) o views obsession with economic growth as one of the causes of problems  ex. since industrial revolution o developed countries ­­> high: consumption, production, etc.  also from newly industrialized countries: India, China o success usually measured in terms of gross national product (GNP)  o environmentalists think there are limits to growth  earth has carrying capacity o if everyone had ecological footprint as people in rich countries ­­> would need 2  or 3 more Earths _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________ BOX 5­2 – The Limits to Growth: A Famous Bet (page 117) - in 1972, group of industrialists, political leaders and academics called Club of Rome o  predicted that within 100 years, collapse of society because limits to growth were  exceeded - the report: The Limits to Growth 
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