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Chapter 1-Introduction to Psycology- FINAL NOTES PREPARATION!

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University of Alberta
David B Campell

Chapter 1 > William James (1842-1910) said to be „founder‟ of psychology > Current researchers study internal consciousness such as memory, perception, creativity , and addictions for example. > Broaden knowledge by seeing effect of culture, origins/use of language, study of groups, study of backgrounds. -> provides applications to create solutions for more effectiveness. > Psychology: The Scientific Study of the Mind and Behavior > Mind: Inner Experience > Made of thoughts, feelings, and memories > Behaviour: Observable Actions Main Questions to Answer: 1. What are the bases of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings, of our subjective sense of self? > Subjective experiences are the bases that arise from chemical and electrical activities in the brain > Habit at something makes the brain more efficient (playing piano for example) 2. How does the mind usually allow us to function effectively in the world? > How? >then> what for? relationship with doing something > Psychological Processes basic ability is to be adaptive: promote welfare and reproduction of organisms > One process is called Emotions > Example of Eliot who lost emotions which altered his decisions and personal welfare (wealth and family) Cognitive Thinking: Intelligence, speaking, solving problems 3. Why does the mind occasionally function so ineffectively in the world? > Habit (continuous repitition of a task) replaces thinking( cognitive process) > produces „bugs‟ in response and actions of human thought > These mental errors can tell us how our mind behaves and thinks > Plato vs. Aristotle > Plato believed in nativism: specific knowledge was innate or ‘natural’ > Gave the example of children making sound when they are infants (sounds > language> communication) > Aristotle believes in philosophical empiricism: ALL knowledge is acquired through experience > Said everyone was a blank slate- “tabula rasa” > René Descartes (1596–1650) said mind and body are two DIFFERENT THINGS > Material vs spiritual substance > Dualism: Existence of both mind and body acting as one for any physical behaviour (actions) > He said this dual connection is met in a part of the lower brain called the “pineal glands” > Thomas Hobbes said the mind is whatever the brain is doing > Any mental thinking would be considered the feature of the „mind‟ > Franz Joseph Gall said mind and brain were connected by size NOT glands > Made psychological theory called Phrenology: mental abilities including memory to being happy are kept/created in certain parts of the brain > essential the brain is divided into parts, each part does some sort of psychological process (mind + behaviour) > Paul Broca proved Franz theory by inspecting damaged brains and doing surgery > Damaged brains led to specific tasks not being achievable (e.g speaking) > Physiology: Study of biological processes within the human body > Helmholtz measured the speed of nerve impulses > Using stimulus and reaction time >Prior it was assumed that ALL neurological processes were Instantaneously-not true now, there are delays >Wilhelm Wundt was credited the „founder‟ of physiology > Focused on consciousness: person’s personal experience of the world and mind > Study of Structuralism: basic elements that make up the mind (sensations and feelings are part of this) > These different elements make up the consciousness within the mind > Analyze streams of consciousness by using introspection: personal observation of one’s own experience > Describing a stimulus (color or sound) > Relation between feelings and perceptual sensations would tell conscious experience > Used reaction times to measure conscious processes Scientific approach to conscious processes > By using tone interpretation vs. reaction of tone he could see that when the mind had to analyze the tone, it would delay the reaction time > Titchener studied structuralism itself by identifying elemental qualities of conscious experience > Usually Auditory + Visual elements > William James used Functionalism: The study of the purpose of mental processes that serve to create adaptability for people within their environment instead of structuralism > Based on Natural Selection: features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely to be passed then any other feature for coming generations How does functionalism relate to Darwin’s theory of natural selection? > James thought mental processes were adaptive- passed from gen to gen. for the purpose and function of increasing human‟s chance of survival and solving problems > Stanley Hall developed a major „school of thought‟ in North American using functionalism as a major approach > First psychology journal and association in america Clinical Psychology > Hysteria: temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions resulting from an emotionally upsetting experience > Blind and paralyzed were reversed when their consciousness was altered (through hypnotics) > Suggests that the mind can create many „conscious‟ selves which may contradict like the symptom of hysteria > Freud suggested painful childhood memories created unconsciousness: part of mind outside consciousness that effects it’s thoughts, feelings, and actions > In hysteria, painful memories of past childhood experiences which are forgotten to the patient are actually impacting the conscious mind (in this case they become paralyzed, blind, deaf e.t.c) > Feud developed the psychoanalytic theory: approach t
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