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PSYCO 104 - Final - Terms List.docx

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University of Alberta
Blaine Mullins

PSYCO 104: Terms List 08/12/2013 22:20:00 Term Definition st Learning Friday, November 1 , 2013 learning a change in the neural network arising from experiences regarding a specific stimuli and response if you learn something for an exam and forget it a week later, you haven’t learned anything habituation the decreased responsitivity to a stimulus over repeated experiences - brain ignores the stimulus; you still perceive it - increased complexity = increased time before habituation The brain constitutes - 2% of weight _% of your weight, - 20% of energy but consumes _% of your energy. pruning removing unwanted/unneeded connections sensitization the progressive increase in the vigor of a behavior that occurs with repeated experiences with a stimulus startle response a defensive reflex in response to a startling stimulus that causes a sudden jump and tensing of the muscles in the upper part of the body 12/8/2013 10:20:00 PM Classic Monday, November 4 , 2013h Conditioning Rene Descartes - came up with the idea of dualism - first Westerner to suggest reflexes dorsal root - towards the spine - sensory information ventral root - towards the belly - motor information classic conditioning the conditioned response to a previously (CC) unconditioned stimuli through paired associations of two things (e.g. food and ringing a bell causes a dog to salivate; eventually just ringing the bell will cause a dog to salivate) Ivan Pavlov - discovered how to extract the contents of a stomach without killing the organism - disproved the idea that reflexes were innate - proved that we can condition reflexes Edwin Twitmyer - independently discovered the same thing in 1902 (knee-jerk reaction) Stages of CC 1. Acquisition 2. Secondary Conditioning 3. Extinction acquisition the learning stage with the pairing of the stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus secondary use the primary conditioning stimulus to condition a conditioning second condition stimulus e.g. money: makes you happy to have it even though the practical value of money is inexistent extinction the presentation of a conditioned stimulus without a corresponding action causes a gradual elimination of a learned response spontaneous after extinction, a single pairing of stimulus + reward recovery yields a return in that behaviour, suggesting that there is a trace in behaviour generalization the tendency to respond to similar stimuli discrimination the tendency not to respond to stimuli that are different biological a propensity to learn particular kinds of associations preparedness over others e.g. phobias: because of our ancestral habits, we tend to fear things that they used to fear (spiders, heights, small spaces, etc.), and not the things that are actually dangerous to us (electrical outlets, cars, vending machines, etc.) human taste similar to classic conditioning, however, associations aversions can still be made despite the passage of long periods of time (e.g. dinner & food poisoning, jelly beans & chemotherapy) Examples of CC in 1. Sexual fetishes: US paired with UR during a critical real life: sexual development period. 2. Advertising: pair a neutral object with an attractive object to increase your affection for that neutral object. 3. Drug overdoses: association of location with the action of getting high; shooting up in a new location with the regular amount of drugs would case overdose because the body isn’t conditioned/adapted to handle that much drugs. 12/8/2013 10:20:00 PM th Operant Wednesday, November 6 , 2013 Conditioning asdfa 12/8/2013 10:20:00 PM Memory Friday, November 8 , 2013 memory the ability to encode, store, and retrieve information - vividness of a memory is not correlated with accuracy Pichert & Anderson’s People have a tendency to remember certain facts Short Story over others. Memories are selectively focused on Experiment what we consider important. - homebuyers vs. thief elaborative encoding actively relating new information with information already stored in long-term memory -inner-left temporal lobe and lower-left frontal lobe (meeting point between centers of higher thought and language) visual imagery storing information by changing it into mental encoding pictures; requires a mental picture/visualization - occipital lobe organizational identifying relationships among items or categorizing encoding items - upper-left frontal lobe Storage Systems: 1. Sensory memory 2. Short-term memory 3. Working memory 4. Long-term memory sensory memory - only lasts for a maximum of 2 seconds (hearing) - huge capacity, but only for a short period of time - direct analogue or sensory representation of what you’ve just seen iconic memory - visual memory - allows you to piece together a moving car even after you blink echoic memory - auditory memory - interprets noise, speech, sound short-term memory - capacity of about 7 +/- 2 items - on the order of seconds chunking - condensing lists of items into “chunks” of meaningful units of information (e.g. acronyms, holistic ideas, patterns, etc.) - license plates and phone numbers are chunked maintenance - repetition of information without making rehearsal connections - analogous to sitting in a leaky boat and just bailing out water; exhaustive, time-consuming, ineffective elaborative rehearsal attach meaning to something and making associations in concepts working memory same thing as short-term memory, however, there are active processes involved in maintaining information (analogous to a spotlight that highlights certain parts of our long-term memory and makes this information accessible to us) long-term memory capacity is limited to our lifespan; contains everything you know (skills, memories, procedures, etc.) serial position curve - higher probability of remembering things at the end and at the beginning, but less so in the middle primacy effect tendency to remember things at the beginning of a list recency effect tendency to remember things at the end of the list because they are most recent retrieval cue way of remembering information (analogous to attaching a string to a piece of information in the LTM) e.g. flowers are an external retrieval cue reminding you that it’s Valentine’s Day encoding specificity if retrieval cue mimics encoding, then your memory will be strengthened context dependent the environment serves as a contextual retrieval cue memory (e.g. writing a test in the same classroom where you learned it) state dependent the state of your condition when you learn something memory will help you remember (e.g. teaching deep-sea welders to weld in a swimming pool make for more successful welders) Stroop effect the inability to attend the color of words and not read them (e.g. black blue green yellow red purple orange) 12/8/2013 10:20:00 PM LTM & The Brain Monday, November 13 , 2013h First memory is - first memory around age 3-4 around the age of - emotional or sensory in nature __, and is _ or _ in - language fully develops around this age, and is nature. associated with LTM explicit memory awareness; you are aware of what you’re experiencing implicit memory non-awareness; you cannot tell me what you’re experiencing despite knowing that it’s there semantic memory facts episodic memory memory for an episode of your life procedural memory memory for knowing how to do something autobiographical memory for episodes of your own life memory - contains semantic and episodic memory - recent memories = more episodic and less semantic - past memories = more semantic and less episodic (e.g. old house: know address, but not details) flashbulb memory vivid and detailed memory surrounding a highly emotional or personal event - recollection of little details (e.g. where you were, what you were wearing, time of day, etc.) - usually inaccurate, and nothing significant about its accuracy compared to regular memories eidetic memory the ability to retain perfect snapshots of the situation photographic in your memory memory - no evidence that photographic memory exists (e.g. Elizabeth experiment; faulty scientific process) engram physical locations in the brain where memories are believed to be stored - disproved by Lashley; memories are not localized, in fact, they are distributed across your brain Karl Lashley discovered that the aptitude of a rat’s maze-running ability was directly proportional to the amount, not type, of brain removed - mnemonic: the type of brain removed has no weight (recall, engram) on the success of a rat running through a maze Hebb’s Rule stipulates that memories and skills are nothing more than neural pathways in the brain - if a synapse is active at the same time a post- synaptic neuron fires, chemical changes result in a connection between these synapses plasticity Suggests that the brain is flexible and adapts to form new pathways based on your experiences. consolidation The organization or consolidation of memories to counter memory decay. Sleep is an important part of consolidation. reconsolidation A period during the retrieval of a memory where memories are prone to decay. Major brain 1) Cerebellum: motor skills memory structures 2) Hippocampus: converts short-term memory (STM) into long-term memory (LTM); spatial memory 3) Amygdala: emotional memories (usually negative) 4) Prefrontal cortex: involved in working memory (Samuelson’s) Radial arm maze Rats have excellent spatial memory. Morris water maze Rats have 12/8/2013 10:20:00 PM Forgetting Friday, November 15 , 2013 forgetting the failure to remember Two types of 1) Abnormal: due to a trauma of some sort forgetting 2) Normal: natural, typical definition for forgetting motivated forgetting Repression of memories for protection against a traumatic or painful memory. retrograde amnesia loss of pre-trauma memory; capacity still for the creation of new memories; cause: physical trauma to the head (stroke, blow to the head, etc.) anterograde amnesia preservation of pre-trauma memory, but inability to create new memories Seven types of Transience, absentmindedness, blocking, normal forgetting: misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence. - mnemonic: My TABS at Boston Pizza. transience normal forgetting that occurs with the passage of time (e.g. forgetting curve) or due to interference Interference Two types: retroactive and proactive. Imagine the following situation where you are asked to remember 1 first, and then 2. 1: A B C D E F 2: a b c d e f retroactive new information interferes with old information interference eg. recall the first line of letters (A b C D e F); the wrong letters were a result of newer, more recent information tampering with your ability to correctly recall the first line of letters (A B C D E F) proactive old information interferes with new information interference eg. recall the second line of letters (A b c d E F); the wrong letters were a result of older, less recent information tampering with your ability to correctly recall the second string of letters (a b c d e f) absentmindedness Memory failure as a result of a lack of attention (eg. forgetting where you put your keys). prospective memory Making a commitment to remember something in the future (eg. I will buy milk after I leave school today) blocking failure to retrieve information that is available in your memory even despite trying to produce it eg. “tip of the tongue” misattribution assigning a memory to the wrong source eg. eyewitnesses often don’t describe the actual burglar/attacker/rapist/etc. but instead mix up those details with that of a bystander instead suggestibility incorporating misleading information from external sources into personal recollections eg. “What was the speed of the two cars before they smashed together?” vs. “What was the speed of the two cars before they bumped each other?” bias when present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings distort our memories (eg. hindsight bias) persistence remembering things that we are trying to forget (eg. Friday – Rebecca Black) 12/8/2013 10:20:00 PM Emotions Monday, November 18 , 2013h emotion a positive or negative experience associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity; has both subjective and objective components functions of 1) Autonomic responses emotions 2) Motivation 3) Communication 4) Social bonds 5) Memory autonomic responses physiological reaction in response to a stimulus (eg. releasing adrenaline in response to a frightful event) motivation the encouragement to try harder, stay longer, and work harder for something eg. love is a strong motivating factor communication emotions help give context to our words and clarify what we say (eg. miscommunication via text because it is devoid of emotions) social bonds emotions help create cohesion between people in a society or social group memory emotional ties to memories solidify our likeliness of remembering that particular event multidimensional a statistical technique for mapping emotions based on scaling real life constructs of happiness, fear, aggression, etc. Reasons why judging 1) A person’s ability to judge emotions varies based faces is unreliable on their emotional experienc
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