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Psychology Second Half Full Notes

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Chapter 8 Consciousness Awareness • Cogito Ergo Sum (I think, therefore I am) o Rene Descartes argued that we can be certain of our existence by virtue of the fact that we can reason. However, this does not ensure our experience is accurate, nor does it mean we can be certain of anyone else’s existence beyond our own. (Other people could be figments of our imagination) • Self-Awareness o Although we take for granted the ability to recognize our self, not all people, and certainly not all animals, can do this. o Humans develop a sense of self-awareness around age 2 o Rouge Test  Place a mark on part of animals body it cannot see without reflective surface  Place animal in front of surface  Observe whether the animal attempts to wipe the mark off itself  We use this in infants to see if they are capable of self-recognition (put a red make-up on a babies face) o Attention  Attention is selective (If we are only looking for the passes the white team makes, we will not see the moon-walking bear…) October 18, 2012 • Blind Sight o You cannot see things on the right side of your visual field, but they can behave properly to things in the right visual field (they can tell you if an object moves up or down even if they cannot see what it is or even though they are not consciously aware of it. Kind of like a reptile • Visual Neglect o People who perceive the world just fine but seem incapable of responding to it properly. They behave improperly in the world. (When asked to draw a picture they don’t draw one side of it.) o Not as straight forward as one half of your visual field you cannot respond to. Free Will • Wilhelm Wundt’s Thought Meter • The Libet Experiment o Method  Participants are shown a rotating dial on a computer screen and instructed to press a button when they have the will to respond. They then reposition the dot to the spot where they had the urge to respond (we should expect 0.1 second delay according to thought mater) Brain activity is recorded during the experiment. o Results  Participants report wanting to respond about 0.1 seconds prior to responding. However, electrical activity in the motor cortex can be seen up to 2 seconds prior to that desire. o Preparation to move happens before having the “desire” to move • Hypnosis o People under hypnosis are marginally more susceptible to suggestion. Hypnosis probably works in a fashion to biases introduced from “subliminal perception” (can’t make them do something they wouldn’t normally do) o People under hypnosis can handle intense amounts of pain. o Not very many people susceptible to hypnosis o If you take certain drugs you are more likely to respond to suggestion Sleep (the first large sum of money you get, use to buy a really good bed!! You sleep 1/3 of your life!!) • What is the purpose of sleep? o Physical restoration/repair theory  Sleep allows our bodies to go through periods of accelerated tissue repair  If sleeping is for restoration/repair, people who sleep more should heal faster  Everson (1993) • Method – Mice were given a very small cut • Manipulation – Mice were either allowed to sleep normally or disturbed at regular intervals throughout the night • Results – The mice that slept undisturbed recovered from their injury faster than the mice that were routinely woken up.  If sleeping is for restoration/repair, people who have exerted less should sleep less.  Ryback & Lewis (1971) • Method - have people just stay in bed for 6 weeks and see if they sleep more • Results – Contrary to expectations, people who are sedentary for long periods of time do not require less sleep  Adey, Bors, & Porter (1968) • Method – sleep behaviour of quadriplegics and healthy, uninjured adults • Results – Both groups spent the same amount of time sleeping, and the same amount of time in each stage of sleep  Asdf • Method – Sleep behaviour of marathon runners was compared to before and after marathon • Results – For a few days after the marathon, athletes spent more time sleeping in stages 3 & 4 October 23, 2012 o Mental restoration/repair theory  Sleep allows our brain to go through a period of rest/repair  Metabolic activity of brain drops by 75% during Stage 4  Most animals with simple brains (e.g. insects) need no sleep  Our sleeping behavior changes after engaging in mentally strenuous activities  Horne & Minard (1985) • Method – For a series of 4 nights, they followed people around • Manipulation – On one random day, participants were engaged in some sort of mentally strenuous activity • Results – After mentally strenuous activity, participants don’t sleep more, but rather spend more time in stages 3&4 of sleep.  Sleep Deprivation • Randy Gardner went without sleep for 11 days straight on a bet • Gardner showed no decline in performance on active, complex tasks (playing sports, arcade, conversation) • Gardner had great difficulties staying focused on mundane, repetitive tasks • Also had: emotional instability, hallucinations (sleep deprivation has been used as a medication for depression) o Memory/brain development theory  REM (Rapid Eye Movement) plays a very important role in learning and brain development  When you wake people up during REM sleep or during stage sleep, people in REM report having been dreaming 80% of the time and only 20% of the time for stage sleep. Plus, REM sleep dreams are more like narratives, stories with details… while stage sleep is more emotional  We are unable to send motor controls to our muscles when sleeping. This is important otherwise sleep walking…  REM sleep plays a role in the acquisition of new knowledge  Girnell (1995) • Method – Rats were trained to run a complex maze over numerous days. Their time to run the maze each day was recorded • Manipulation – Rats were either allowed to sleep normally, or they were given brain surgery that prevented them from entering REM • Results – Rats prevented from entering REM sleep learned the maze much slower than the other rats.  Non-somniac • Somebody who can function on basically no sleep  As we get older, we spend proportionally less time in REM sleep and less time sleeping • Infant: 70% REM sleep (sleeps 20 hours) • 6 months old: 30% REM sleep(15 hours) • 8 years old: 22% REM sleep (10 hours) • Adult: 15% REM sleep (7 hours)  Mirimiran (1995) What happens to brain development when REM sleep is suppressed • Method – Rats were raised from infancy to adulthood, upon death, rat brains were dissected and forebrain mass was weighed • Manipulation – Some rats were surgically altered to not be able to go into REM sleep • Results – Rats that couldn’t enter REM sleep had smaller forebrains during adulthood.  Can do this experiment with kittens/cats. • Stages of sleep o Measured electrical activity in the brain goes through five distinct stages while we sleep o How much time we spend in each stage of sleep depends on how long we’ve been sleeping for October 30, 2012 Learning • Change in an organisms behavior or thought as a result of experience. • Our understanding of learning processes is rooted in work done by behavioural psychologists Classic Conditioning • The passive process of learning reflexive behaviours by association. o Ivan Pavlov conditioned dogs to drool to the sound of a bell, by consistently pairing that bell with the presentation of food o Animals gain new behavior with the association of stimuli in their environment • Advertisers use CC by pairing products with other things that make us react favorably. (vodka being advertised by hot women) • Blink Conditioning o Present a neutral stimulus o Blow a puff of air in someone’s eye immediately after o Repeat many times o Present neutral stimulus without air puff following o Observe behaviour o The behaviour is similar across all mammals and all mammals learn at the same rate • Conditioning o If event A reliably predicts event B, reflexive behavior associated with event B will now occur with event A o We can say conditioned behaviour is driven by expectancy. We behave based on what we expect to happen 1. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) a. This is a stimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive response b. The puff of air 2. Unconditioned response(UCR) a. The reflexive response that is naturally elicitied by the UCS b. The blink 3. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) a. Stimulus that is repeatedly associated with the UCS b. The bell 4. Conditioned Response (CR) a. The response elicited by a CS after repeatedly being associated with UCS b. Blink after hearing the bell • Usually the CR is not an exact replica as UCR o Quantity (or quality) o Pavlovs dog salivate less to bells than to actual food. o A rodent reflexively freezes at the sight of a snake, however, if you associate a bell with the presentation of a snake, rodents will run and hide at the sound of the bell. • For condition to work, the CS onset must always precede the UCS onset • For conditioning to work best, the UCS and CS must partially overlap in time. • Temporal Proximity o If the bell precedes the eye puff by just a few seconds, you will still see a blink, but it wouldn’t be for reasons of conditioning  If the bell preceded the air puff by 2 hours, nothing would happen • Practice Questions o Train your little brother to be sick when he has chocolate  UCS – poison in chocolate  UCR – vomiting  CS – chocolate  CR – vomiting, feeling sick o Flinch when he sees Justin Bieber  UCS – Hitting little brother  UCR – Flinching  CS – Justin Bieber  CR – Flinching o Bring you breakfast in bed every Saturday  You could not do this through CC. this would be operant Conditioning • A very strong UCR results in very quick learning (drinking alcohol) • Acquisition o Species learn at the same rate/ acquire new behaviours at the same rate • Extinction o CR will disappear when CS is presented without a UCS multiple times. So CC is fundamentally limited: it will never result in permanent learning o We unlearn responses faster than we learned them • Spontaneous recovery o When Extinction occurs, if there is a gap in time, CR might come back for a little bit • Generalization o The CS can be a range of similar things (ie. Different Justin Bieber posters, Justin Bieber, maybe a Justin Bieber CD) • Second Order conditioning o Once a strong CS/CR link has been established, CSs can be treated as UCSs to create new CSs o This is called second-order (or higher order) conditioning o When you are happy to see your girlfriend because of kisses, then a distinct pair of perfume/cologne can be paired with that person o Second Order conditioning can explain fetishes very well • Habituation o If a UCS leads to a UCR, but that UCR consistently has no meaningful impact, that UCR will become less intense over time o The loss of an UCR is habituation, and loss of a CR is extinction o Habituation is often when they form a new CS that counteracts a UCR o Over repeated uses, people develop drug tolerance (the same amount of drug [UCS] elicits lower intensity responses [UCR]) o Drug habituation is most pronounced in people who consume drugs at the same location (the location you take drugs becomes a CS) (go to a different bar and you will get drunk quicker) (when police do a drug raid, afterwards, when all of the drug addicts go to take drugs in a different location they take the same does, but since they do not have the same CR that the location give them which counteracts the drug they overdose and die) o Test done that found new location and type of alcohol resulted in more drunk behaviour but the same Blood Alcohol Level Operant conditioning • A form of learning where the consequences of an organism’s behavior determine whether that behaviour will be repeated in the future. o Animals can be taught do things by learning the expected values of their actions o Training your dog • Law of Effect o If a response, in the presence of a stimulus, is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, that behavior will become more likely within the presence of the stimulus. • Three Term Contingency o Discriminative Stimulus  With operant conditioning, organisms learn to produce specific behaviours within specific contexts. Theses contexts are called discriminative stimuli. o Response o Favorable consequence (or unfavourable)  Strengthens or weakens the connection between DS and R  Forms o Punisher – decreases the likelihood of a behavior that led to it  Not necessarily damaging o Reinforcer – increases the likelihood of a behavior that led to it • Positive reinforcement o Adding a stimulus or event to the environment that serves to increase the likelihood of a behavior that led to it. o Rats will press a button that stimulates their hypothalamus at the expense of not eating, sleeping, copulation… • Negative Reinforcement o removing a stimulus or event from the environment, with the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour that led to the removal o Kids scream until parents give you what you want and then you stop screaming o Punch your brother until he leaves your room and then the punching stops • Positive Punishment o Adding a stimulus or event to the environment that serves to decrease the likelihood of a behavior that led to it. • Negative Punishment o Involves removing a stimulus or event from the environment, with the overall function of reducing the likelihood of a behavior that led to the removal o If you don’t do your homework before 5:00 you get the TV remote taken away o Salience  If your dog pees on the rug and you punish him when he comes to greet you after work, he might think you are punishing him for greeting you.  Punishment and reinforcement work best when the behavior you are desiring to change the frequency of is salient  One thing that makes a behavior salient is temporal proximity  Make sure the subject’s aware of what they’re being reinforced or punished for  Shock collar is very useful in stopping a dog from barking because it shocks the dog every time the dog barks November 6, 2012  Remember three term contingency… the stimulus needs to be close to the response and consequence • Punishment o Punishment is only useful when you can be certain you will punish every instance of the undesired behaviour o If this is not done, the person being punished simply learns to not do the undesired behaviour when you are around. • How Reinforcement Works o If you start doing something that has a very great reward, you will just keep on doing it over and over again, reinforcing it even more (drugs) (makes one behaviours likelihood 100% and makes other behaviours likelihood 0%) • How Punishment Works o When you get punished for a behavior, that behavior becomes less likely and keeps on becoming less likely until you never do that behaviour again. (makes one behaviors likelihood 0% and leaves other behaviors untouched) • For different circumstances we would choose different methods (positive/negative reinforcement/punishment) o You are at the park with your child. You want her to explore the park, but you do not want her to go near the road. How could you accomplish this?  D.S. – Being at the park (with parents)  Response – Approaching Road  Outcome – Taking the child home (Negative Punishment) (taking away the park) o Same case  D.S. –Being at the park (with parents)  Response – Approach Road  Outcome – Smack the child (positive punishment) • We could try to make the child behave like we want to them to all the time by having different people punish them when they approach the road but maybe this is only widening the D.S. to whenever the child goes to the park with another person. • Or try to make the child behave like we want them to by making the punishment even greater (thrash the child to within an inch of their life) o You are at the park with your child. The only thing you want him to play with is the swings, because you think everything else is too dangerous. How could you accomplish this goal using operant conditioning  D.S. – Going to park with parents  Response – Staying on the swi
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