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PSYCO 104 Full Notes for the course (everything you need to get an A)

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Chapter 1- History of Psychology : Psychology: The scientific study of mind and behaviour Mind: Our private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings Behaviour: Observable actions of human beings and non human animals Structuralists: Analyze the mind by breaking it down into its basic components Functionalists: Focus on how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments Nativism: Philosophical view that certain of knowledge are innate or inborn Philosophical Empiricism: Phiosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience Phrenology: Now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness are localized in specific brain regions Physiology: Study of biological processes especially in the human body Stimulus: Sensory input from the environment Reaction Time: Amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus Consciousness: A person’s subjective experience of the world and mind Structuralism: The analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind, create “periodic table of elements of the mind” Introspection: The subjective observation of one’s own experience. -Pure Introspection vs. Experimental Introspection Functionalism: Study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment Natural selection: Charles Darwin’s theory, features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to future generations Illusions: Errors of perception, memory, or judgement in which subjective experience differs from objective reality Gestalt Psychology: Psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts Dissociative Identity Disorder: A condition that involves the occurrence of two or more distinct identities within the same individual Hysteria: A temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences Unconscious: The part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness, but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions Psychoanalytic Theory: Sigmund Freud’s approach to understanding human behaviour that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviours Psychoanalysis: A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders Humanistic Psychology: An approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings Behaviorism: An approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behaviour Response: Action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus Reinforcement: Consequences of a behaviour determine whether it will be more or less likely to occur again Cognitive Psychology: The scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning, rules Behavioral Neuroscience: An approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes Cognitive Neuroscience: A field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity Evolutionary Psychology: A psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of the adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection Social Psychology: A subfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behaviour Cultural Psychology: Study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members Absolutists: Culture has no impact on psychology Relativists: Psychology varies with cultures Wilhelm Wundt: Voluntarism (not structuralism,textbook is wrong), experimental introspection Edward Titchener: Structuralism, pure introspection William James: Functionalism, Stream of Consciousness (Slide 38*), slide 52 Edward Thorndike: The law of Effect Ivan Pavlov: Pre-behaviorism John Watson: Behaviorism Burrhus Skinner: Behaviorism, reinforcement Exam question: Explain how you could use conditioning and reinforcement to teach a dog to skateboard? Plato: Theory of Forms Aristotle: 4 Causes: -Material: What is it made of? -Formal: What is its shape? -Efficient: What energy made it take its form? -Final Cause: For what purpose does it exist? Chapter 2- The Methods of Psychology : Empiricism: Describes any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects or events. Method: Set of rules and techniques for observation that allow researchers to avoid illusions, mistakes, and erroneous conclusions that simple observation can produce Operational Definition: Description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete condition that can be measured. Ex. University operationally defines adequate knowledge of the material presented in a university course as scoring 60% or better on an examination prepared by the instructor of that course Measure: Device that can detect measurable events to which an operational definition refers Validity: Characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences about it Construct Validity: Tendency for an operation definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation Predictive Validity: Tendency for an operational definition to be related to other operational definitions Reliability: Tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used to measure the same thing. Ex. Muscle doesn’t move for 10 min, but EMG records different readings every min is unreliable Power: Tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measure different things. Ex. Muscle moves continuously for 10 min, EMG produces same reading for 10 min lacks power Case Method: Method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual Population: Complete collection of participants who might possible be measured Sample: Partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study Law of Large Numbers: As sample size increases, attributes of a sample will more closely reflect the attributes of the population from which it was drawn Frequency Distribution: Graphical representation of measurements of a sample, arranged by number of times each measurement was observed Normal Distribution: Frequency distribution in which most measurements are concentrated around the mean and fall off towards tails, two sides are symmetrical Mode: Most frequent observation Mean: Average of measurements in a frequency distribution Median: Middle measurement Range: Numerical difference between smallest and largest measurements Demand Characteristics: Aspects of an observational setting that cause ppl to behave as they think an observer wants or expects them to behave Naturalistic Observation: Method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusively observing ppl in their natural environments Correlation: “Co-relationship” or pattern of covariation between two variables, each of which has been measured several times Correlation Coefficient: Statistical measure of the direction and strength of a correlation, (r) Third-Variable Correlation: Fact two variables may be correlated only b/c they are caused by a third variable Experiment: Technique for establishing causal relationship between variables Internal Validity: Characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable External Validity: Characteristic of an experiment in which independent and dependent variables are operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way Chapter 3- Neuroscience and Behaviour : Neuron: Cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks. Discovered by Santiago Ramon y Cajal Cell Body: Part of a neuron that coordinates information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive Dendrites: Part of a neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body Axon: Part of a neuron that transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands Sensory, Motor, and Interneurons Sensation and Perception -Sensation: Detection of physical energy by a sense organ -Perception:Our interpretation of raw sensory input Psychophysics: The study of how sensations are turned into perceptions -Absolute threshold: Minimum detectable sensation -The method of limits: Experimenter controls intensity -The method of adjustment: Subject controls intensity -The method of constant stimuli: Intensities presented in random order Absolute threshold: Change based on past history method of adjustment < method of constant stimuli < method of limits Perception is relative -Gestalt Psychology: Understand perception in terms of the whole rather than the individual parts. Perception based on organization of sensations. Stimulation processed as a whole Top down effect: Try to impose past knowledge to interpret stimuli Eye Anatomy: •Iris: Colored part, controls size of pupil •Lens: Focusses light on retina •Fovea: Area of retina where vision is clearest, no rods •Blind Spot: Where optic nerve connects, no rods or cones •Retina: Images project on to retina •Optic Nerve: Carries stimuli to brain -Rods: Can’t detect colour, poor at picking up detail, low light conditions, attuned to motion -Cones: Detect colour, fine detail, poor detection of motion, normal light conditions -Subliminal Persuasion: Doesn’t usually work (listening to self-esteem tapes when sleeping) -Subliminal Perception: Behaviour can be biased by information we have unconsciously been exposed to -Priming: Presenting info will prime people to recognize and interact with other similar info, even if they were not consciously aware of the info before -Pop-out Effects: Perceptually different info tends to ‘pop out’ at us Action and Perception Size-Weight Illusion: When held objects with more volume will be perceived as lighter (same mass) -As width increased perceived weight decreased, as length increased perceived weight increased Wieldabilility: Perception of weight decreases as resistance to rotational force decreases (wieldability increases) Ecological Psychology: Our perception of objects depends on what they afford (allow us to do) -Slant Perception: Ppl will overestimate the slope of an incline if they’re tired Sleep: -5 stages of sleep: Time spent in each stage depends on how long we’ve been sleeping -Physical restoration/repair hypothesis: •Ppl who expend less energy, or quadriplegics don’t sleep less •Ppl tend to sleep more after extreme physical exertion, particularly in stages 3 and 4 •Mice who’s sleep was uninterrupted healed faster from small wounds -Mental restoration hypothesis: •Stage 4, slow wave (high amplitude, low frequency), decreased metabolic activity •Allows brain to rest •After “mentally strenuous” days ppl didn’t sleep more, but spent more time in stages 3 and 4 •Staying awake for long periods of time showed no decline in performance complex tasks, but saw decrease in performance on mundane, repetitive tasks -Memory/brain development hypothesis: •Rem Sleep: Low amplitude, high frequency. Most dreaming occurs in REM sleep. When REM sleep is disrupted have trouble learning new tasks. Time spent in REM sleep decreases with age •Nonsomnia: Only needing an extremely little amount of sleep (1-2hrs) Don’t show learning deficits •REM sleep allows brain to reshape and make new neural connections (bigger forebrain) Consciousness -Cogito Ergo Sum: “Evil Demon” Rene Descartes, I think, therefore I am. The only thing I can be certain of is that I exist -Simulation Argument: 1/3 of the these assumptions must be true: •Human species is very likely to go extinct before reaching a “posthuman” stage •Any post-human civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of their evolutionary history (or variations thereof) •We are almost certainly living in a computer simulation -Moore’s Law: Computing power doubles roughly every 18 months -Scientists assume the world is real, or at least reliably measurable -Selective Attention: We choose what to attend to -Self-Awareness: Humans develop self-awareness around age 2, use rouge test to test -Libet experiment: Clock, participants push button when they feel urge to, record when they ‘felt’ like they wanted to push. Participants report ‘wanting’ to respond about half a second before the respond. Changes in brain activity can be seen as much as 2 seconds before participants report having a conscious ‘will’ to act. Learning -Learning: Experience that results in a relatively permanent change in state of the learner -Habituation: General process which repeated or prolonged exposure
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