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Psych Final Exam Study Notes

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Blaine Mullins

Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception bare awareness that something is happening resulting from stimulation of a Sensationsense organ no organization do not know what the thing is that you are seeingBegins with Transduction conversion of physical energy to neural impulsesSensory adaptation reduced sensitivity after prolonged exposure to stimulusPerception knowing what something is the organization identication interpretation of a sensationPerceptual system uses 3 types of info 1 properties of physical environment specic wavelengths 2 electrical activity in NS 3 prior experience and knowledgeCognition being aware of knowing thinking learning judging etc Mostly unconscious Sensation light enters eye retinal cells activatedPerception object identiedCognition think about object memoriesSynesthesia stimulation of one sensory pathway results in the automatic activation of another sensory system IE see aand a colour as well taste something in response to a wordMost common involving color in some way seems to occur from childhood experiences every 1300 people 70 inuenced by genes rest by environment so can have it if blind This shows it occurs in the brain not from what you see V1 and V4 visual cortex part of brain are activatedClinical test to diagnose shown array of letters for limited time If synesthetic can see hidden shapeslettersBottomup processing aka datadriven interpretation of something that comes from the data start simple create something more complex combine several bits of sensory information and combine it together to interpret a situation Topdown processing interpretation of info that comes from ones expectations attention assumptions knowledge etc brain naturally lls missing part of picture what you think impacts what you see you set up your own expectations Sensory Coding representation of characteristics of the environment by the ring of neurons 3 Theories 1 Specic Theory each neuron does a different thing different perceptions signaled by activity in specic neurons Different neurons re for different situations If neuron is destroyed you can no longer experience that situation 2 Temporal Coding Theory different perceptions signaled by temporal activity in neurons several action potentials occur at once3 Acrossber pattern theory aka population coding different perceptions signaled by pattern of activity in group of neurons over time different set of neurons ring togetherdifferent experiences Psychophysics studies how we perceive stimuli based on their sensory characteristics methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observers sensitivity to i t a Threshold lowest point where stimulus produces a sensation absolute threshold minimal intensity needed to just barely detect stimulus or difference threshold minimal change in stimulus that can just barely be detectedJND justnoticeable difference JND of any stimulus is a constant Webers Lawproportion regardless of the intensity of the stimulus b Signal Detection theory response to stimulus depends on sensitivity to stimulus in presence of noise and on a persons response criterion VisionVisual Acuity ability to see ne detail Length huecolor Amplitude Brightness Purity Saturation Properties of Light WavesrichnessCornea protection for iris and pupil aid in focus of lightLens focuses lightPupil determines how much light enters the eyeAccommodation adjustment of shape of lens to compensate for distance of objects Zonule Fibers ligaments attached to and pulls on lens contract for from retina distant objects ciliary muscles refract and refract for close objects ciliary muscles contractRetina detects light and sends signals to brainMacula acuity is very goodFovea small put within macula best acuity ONLY CONEScolorRodsnight vision no colorOptic Nerve connects eye to brainVitreal Floaters debris too large for phagocytic consumption dead cells not broken up yet blocking ray of light so you see a shadow oating in vitreous
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