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PSYCO105 Final: Psychology 105 Final Review

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University of Alberta
Blaine Mullins

Stress - A pattern of cognitive appraisals, physiological responses, and behavioural tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands and the resources needed to cope with them. Stressors: are specific kinds of eliciting stimuli; physical and psychological, they place demands on us that endanger well-being, requiring us to adapt in some manner. The greater the imbalance between demands and resources, the more stressful a situation is likely to be. Microstressors: the daily hassles and everyday annoyances we encounter Catastrophic events: often occur unexpectedly and typically affect large numbers People; including events such as war, natural disasters, etc. Major Negative Events: require major adaptation; include examples such as major crimes or sexual abuse All three levels of stressors have psychological and physical effects Measuring Stressful Life Events - Verifying the life events an individual has experiences through studying the linkages between life events and well beings - Life event scales: quantify the amount of life stress that a person has experienced over a given period of time Stress Response 1) Appraisal of the demands of the situation (primary appraisal) - Cognitive Appraisal: one’s perception of a stressful situation - Demands - Resources - Consequences - Personal Meanings 2) Appraisal of the resources available to cope with it (secondary appraisal) 3) Judgments of what the consequences of the situation could be 4) Appraisal of the personal meaning that is, what the outcome might imply about us - Fight or Flight - Sympathetic ANS - General Adaptation Syndrome - GAS: a description of the body’s short-term and long-term reaction to stress - - - - - - - - - - - - Three Stages Physiology of Stress - Homeostasis - Organs and local reflexes - Organs and ganglia in ANS - Brainstem and ANS - Hypothalamus - Higher brain area - Endocrine System - Ductless glands that secrete hormones -> blood - Mood, growth, metabolism, sexual and reproductive processes - Hormones: catecholamines - Glands: Adrenal glands, pituitary gland - HPA Axis - Hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal gland - ACTH - Cortisol - Immune System - Phagocytes - Lymphocytes - Stress related Illnesses Stress and Illness - Stress can combine with other physical and psychological factors to influence the entire spectrum of physical illness; from the common cold to cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and sudden death. - Sometimes the effects are immediate while other effects of major stressors on physical well being are less immediate. - Stress also can trigger illness by causing a breakdown in immune system functioning have shown that stress induced weakening of the immune system in one possible reason for increased risk of illness Vulnerability and Protective Factors - Vulnerability factors increase people’s susceptibility to stressful events; including lack of support network, poor coping skills, etc - Protective factors are environmental or personal resources that help people cope more effectively with stressful events; include social support, coping skills, and personality factors Personality Hardiness: Stress-protective factor The three C’s of hardiness are commitment, control, and challenge - Hardy people are committed to their work, families, and other involvements; they believe what they are doing is important. - View themselves as having control over outcomes, as opposed to feeling powerless - Appraise the demands of the situations as challenges or opportunities, rather than threats; as a result, demanding situations not only become less stressful, butt hey can actually stimulate higher levels of performance - Of these three, control apparently is the strongest active ingredient in buffering stress Resilience: refers to unexpectedly good recovery, or even positive growth, following stress One may promote resilience with - Sense of purpose, coherence and humor - Positive emotions during stress - Taking opportunities to rest, relax, laugh, etx Conscientiousness: organization, self discipline, purposeful action, and desire to achieve - Less likely to partake in risky behaviours - Have relatively healthy behaviours Neuroticism: Overall degree of emotional stability - Typically maladaptive behaviours; such as drinking and smoking - Correlated with stressful events and amount of psychological distress; one is more likely to seek out help Optimism: Optimists have a rosy view of the future, expecting that in the long run, things will work out well; pessimists tend to focus on the black cloud surrounding any silver lining - Optimists have better health and live longer, lower blood pressure and inflammation, there are long term and self protective behaviours and in the short time, detrimental - Type A: people tend to live under great pressure and are demanding of themselves and others; their behaviours include rapid talking, moving, walking, and eating. - They have an exaggerated sense of time urgency and become very irritated at delays or failures to meet their deadlines; are often characterized by high levels of competitiveness and ambition, as well as aggressively and hostility when things get in their way - Type B: persons who are more relaxed, more agreeable, have far less sense of time urgency Coping Styles Coping Self Efficacy: conviction that we can perform behaviours needed to cope successfully; whether or not we feel like we are in control - Problem Focused Coping strategies attempt to confront and deal directly with the demands of the situation, or to change the situation so that it is no longer stressful; examples include studying for a test - Emotion Focused Coping strategies attempt to manage the emotional responses that result from it; a person may deal with the stress from an interpersonal conflict by denying that any problem exists - Seeking Social Support by turning to others for assistance and emotional support in time of stress Transtheoretical Model: How people change - The processes that occurs as people modify their thoughts, feelings and behaviours in positive ways; either on their own or with professional help. - SIX major stages in the change process - Not a smooth sequence 1) Precontemplation: motive to try 2) Contemplation: getting ready, thinking (but haven't done yet) 3) Preparation: decided they are going to change (are ready) 4) Action: changing/stopping 5) Maintenance: major problem is looking to the future (sixish months later) 6) Termination: behaviours are so engraved, problematic behaviour is unlikely to occur - Important because it helps us understand how people change and it has important applied implications; for example we know that different intervention procedures are needed for people at various stages Dealing with Stress Control:learned helplessness - E1 - Shocked + escape - Shocked + no escape - Not shocked - E2 - Learn to sit and Yoked to group 1 Constraint - Repressive coping - Catharsis Working with your body - Diet - Exercise - Biofeedback: measuring heart rate, blood pressure, etc - Relaxation therapy: deep breathing, guided visuals Working with your situation - Developing a sense of humour - Accepting help from others - Decisional Control - Informational control Working with your mind - Mindfulness meditation - Expressive writing - Self affirmation - Religion/Spirituality Individual Difference - Men: problem focus - Women: seek social support and emotion - North Americans: problem focus - Asia: Seek social support and emotion Prevention Programs 1) Educate people concerning risks 2) Motivate people to change their behaviour and convince them they can do so 3) Provide specific guidelines for changing the behaviour and teach the skills needed for change 4) Give support and Encouragement for the desire changes Health Health: a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity Health Psychology: scientific study of prevention and treatment of illness, as well as the maintenance of health Culture - Cultural Evolution: the adaptive change of a culture to recurrent environmental pressures - Individualistic cultures - Collectivist cultures Smoking - #1 preventable cause of death in Canada - 17% of all deaths (Canada) - Health Consequences - Increased risk of premature death, cancer, cardiovascular disease, emphysema, pneumonia, gum disease, osteoporosis, cataracts, and sleeping problems - Cancers: lung (most common), lip, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, pancreas, urinary bladder, kidney - Why do people smoke? - Positive affect smokers - Negative affect smokers - Habitual smokers - Addicted smokers Alcohol - Effects - Short term: alcohol myopia (decreased ability to engage in insightful cognitive processing), hangovers, vomiting, blackouts - Long term: damage to liver, stomach, pancreas, and intestines; high blood pressure, depression of immune system, cancer of the throat, mouth, esophagus, and liver, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Sex - Sexual health: ability to embrace and enjoy our sexuality throughout our lives - Sex lowers blood pressure, reduces risk of heart disease and hypertension, increased muscle content, band oxytocin stimulates bonds Mental Illness Approaches Trephinations: a sharp tool was used to chisel a hole about 2 cm in diameter in the skull to release evil spirits from a body - 12th - 15th Centuries: Evil - In medieval Europe, the demonological model of abnormality held that disturbed people either were possessed involuntarily by the devil or had voluntarily made a park with the forces of the darkness - The killing of witches was justified on theological grounds, and various diagnostic test were devised (A woman would be thrown into a lake; based on the notion that impurities floated to the surface, a woman who sank and drowned could be posthumously declared pure) - 16th - 18th Centuries: Work Houses - 19th Century: Asylums - 20th Century: Freud and Therapy Diagnosing Psychological Disorders Reliability: clinicians using the system should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions Validity: diagnostic categories should accurately capture the essential features of the various disorders DSM-5: Diagnostic system for assessing mental disorders; categorical and dimensional - Dimensional scales are used to rate the presence and severity of specific symptoms and personality disorders - There are six basic dimensions of disordered personality functioning - Negative Emotionality, Schizotypy (odd thinking and behaviour), Disinhibition, Introversion, Antagonism, and Compulsivity Mental Illness: - Key symptoms of illness include 1) Distress to the person or others 2) Disturbance: Dysfunctional, maladaptive, or self defeating 3) Deviance in a way that arouses discomfort in others and cannot be attributed to environmental causes 4) Internal Neurodevelopmental Disorders: impairments in personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning - Tendency to co-occur Language Disorder - Effects the acquisition and use of language and expressive and receptive abilities - Causes problems within academics, occupational statuses, communication, and socialization Autism Spectrum Disorder - Affects one’s social responsiveness, language abilities, and routines - IQ is >70 Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder - Inattention and/or impulsiveness - 7-10% of population - Label is applied to liberally - Boys are 4x more likely than girls to be diagnosed - Can be passed through genes Anxiety Disorders: the frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them, and the anxiety interferes with daily life - Anxiety responses have four components 1) Subjective-emotional component: including feelings of tension and apprehension 2) Cognitive component: subjective feelings of apprehension, a sense of impending danger, and a feeling of inability to cope 3) Physiological responses: including increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tension, rapid breathing, nausea, dry mouth, etc 4) Behavioural responses: including avoidance of certain situations and impaired task performance - Anxiety disorders include phobic disorders, generalized anxiety disorders, and panic disorders. PTSD and OCD were once considered anxiety disorders but the DSM-5 considered them separate disorders - Phobic Disorder - Phobias: strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations - Agoraphobia: a fear of open or public places - Social anxiety disorder: excessive fear of situations in which the person may be evaluated and possibly embarrassed - Specific phobia: - General Anxiety Disorder: (GAD) chronic and excessive worrying accompanies by (>3) restlessness, fatigue, concentration, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance - “Free Flowing” non specific situations or objects - Panic Disorder: Illness marked by episodic attacks of acute anxiety (few seconds to hours) Anxiety Disorders; continued - Causes - Genetic - Overactive ANS - GABA - Emotional conditioning Obsessive Compulsive Disorders - Obsessions: recurrent and persistent thoughts - Compulsions: repetitive behaviours or mental acts OCD: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - Recurrent and unwanted thoughts or images and compelling urges to engage in repetitive ritual like behaviours - Causal Factors in Anxiety Disorders and OCD - Biological: Lower concentration of GABA in the occipital cortex; serotonin may also be involved in anxiety - Psychodynamic Theories: - According to Freud, neurotic anxiety occurs when unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm the ego’s defences and explode into action - In phobic disorders, neurotic anxiety is displaced onto some external stimulus that has symbolic significance in relation to an underlying conflict - Anxiety is key Dissociative Disorders - Dissociation: feelings of being separated or disconnected from one’s thoughts, memories, identity, feelings, or actions - DID: (Dissociative Identity Disorder) - Disruption of identity characterized by two or more personality states - Host + alters - Causes - Trauma dissociation theory: the development of new personalities occur in response to severe stress - Dissociative Amnesia: sudden loss of memory for autobiographical information - A person responds to a stressful event with extensive but selective memory loss - Localized - Generalized - Dissociative Fugue: sudden loss of memory of autobiographical history and sudden departure from home followed by assuming of a new identity - Person loses all sense of personal identity, gives up his or her customary life, wanders to a new faraway location and established a new identity Somatic Symptom Disorders - Involve physical complaints or disabilities that suggest a medical problem, but which have no known biological cause and are not produced voluntarily by the person - Pain disorder; experience intense pain that either is out of proportion to whatever medical condition they have or for which no physical basis can be found - Functional neurological symptoms disorder (conversion disorder); serious neurological symptoms, such as paralysis, loss of sensation, or blindness
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