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PSYCO105 Final: Psychology 105

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University of Alberta
Jennifer Passey

Psychology 105 Step 1: Identify a question of interest Identify Gather Test Build Analyze Step 2: Gather information and form hypothesis - Scientist determine whether any studies, theories, and other information that might help answer their question already exist - Then form a hypothesis- a specific prediction about some phenomenon that often takes the form of an “If-Then” statement Step 3: Test hypothesis by conduction research Step 4: Analyze data, draw tentative conclusions, and report findings - Researchers analyze the information (data) they collect, draw conclusions, and report Step 5: Build a body of knowledge - Scientists build a body of knowledge about the topic in question - They ask further questions - As evidence mounts, they try and build theories- a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another (broader than hypotheses and lawful to relations between behaviours and their causes) Two approaches to understanding behaviour: 1. Hindsight (After-the-fact understanding): Based on common sense and folk knowledge to understand behaviour. Main problem is that related past events can be explained in many creative, reasonable, and sometimes contradictory ways. 2. Understanding through prediction, control, and theory building: Test their understanding of what causes what more directly. It’s the strongest test of scientific understanding because good theories generate an integrated network of prediction. A good theory: - Incorporates existing facts and observation in an organized and meaningful way - It is testable. Generates new hypotheses and predictions whose accuracy can be evaluated by gathering new evidence - Predictions made by the theory are supported by the findings of new research - Conforms to the law of parsimony- if two theories can explain and predict the same phenomena equally well, the simpler theory is the preferred one Psychologists study variables- a characteristic or factor that can vary, and their relations among them Operational definition- defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it Self-report measures- ask people to report on their own knowledge, beliefs, feelings, experiences, or behaviour Social desirability bias- the tendency to respond in a socially acceptable manner rather than according to how one truly feels or behaves Measures of Overt Behaviour: • Psychologists also gather information behaviour using archival measures- which are records or documents that already exist • Reaction time- how rapidly they respond to a stimulus • Psychologists also develop coding systems- to record different categories of behaviour • Observers must be trained to use the coding system properly so that their measurements will be reliable- consistent observations • People may behave different if they know they’re being observed so researchers my disguise their presence or use unobtrusive measures- record behaviour in a way that keeps participants unaware that certain responses are being measured. Psychological Tests: • Develop and use specialized tests to measure many types of variables ex. Personality tests Physiological Measures: • Record physiological responses to assess what people are experiencing ex. Heart rate, blood pressure, etc. ] Methods of Research: • Descriptive research- seeks to identify how humans and other animals behave, particularly in natural settings • Case study- is an in-depth analysis of an individual, a group, or an event. They have several limitations and are poor method for determining cause- effect relations. May not generalize to other people or situations. Observers may not be objective in gathering and interpreting the data. • Naturalistic observation- the researcher observes behaviour as it occurs in a natural setting, and attempts to avoid influencing that behaviour • Habituation- researchers disguise their presence so that participants are aware of being observed • Population- consists of all the individuals about whom we are interested in drawing a conclusion • Sample- a subset of individuals drawn from the larger population of interest • Representative sample- is one that reflects the important characteristics of the population • Random sampling- every member of the population has an equal probability of being chosen • Stratified random sampling- divide the population into subgroups based on such characteristics as a gender or ethnic identity Correlation Research: 1. The researcher measures one variable 2. The researcher measures a second variable 3. The researcher statistically determines both variables are related In correlation research there’s a possibility variable X causes Y or that Y causes X or that they both influence each other this is bidirectionality problem. • Spurious- not genuine • Third-variable problem- The fact that an external variable may have effected the outcome • Correlation coefficient- the direction and strength of the relation between 2 variables • Positive correlation- higher scores on one variable are associated with higher scores on a second variable • Negative correlation- higher scores on one variable are associated with lower scores on a second variable • Scatterplots- graphs that show the correlation between two variables *Correlation coefficient range from +1.00 to -1.00 Experiment: 1. The researcher manipulates (ex. Controls) one or more variables, creating two conditions 2. The researcher measures whether this manipulation influences other variables 3. The researcher attempts to control extraneous factors that might influence the outcome of the experiment • Independent variable- factor that is manipulated or controlled (MUST HAVE 2 LEVELS) • Dependent variable- factor that is measures by the experimenter and may be influenced by the independent variable • Experimental group- group that receives a treatment or an active level of the independent variable • Control group- is not exposed to the treatment or receives 0 level of the independent variable • Interaction- the way 1 independent variable influences the dependent variable differs depending on the conditions of another independent variable • Validity- how well an experimental procedure actually tests what it is designed to test • Internal validity- the degree to which an experiment supports clear casual conclusions • External validity- the degree to which the results of a study can be generalized to other populations, settings, and conditions • Confounding of variables- 2 variables are intertwined in such a way that we can not determine which one has influenced a dependent variable • Double blind procedure- both participant and experimenter are kept blind to which condition the participant is in helps avoid placebo effect and experimenter expectancy effect • Meta-analysis- statistical procedure for combining the results of different studies that examine the same topic to test the overall significance to the findings • Cross-cultural replication- examining whether findings generalize across different cultures • Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient- statistic that reflects the direction and strength of the relation between 2 variables 2 ways to design an experiment: 1. Between groups design- each group in the experiment is composed of a different set of participants. Use random assignment- each participant has an equal likelihood of being assigned to any one group within an experiment 2. Repeated measures- each participant is exposed to all the conditions of an independent variable. Use counterbalancing- the order of the conditions is varied so that no condition has an overall advantage relative to others CPA Canadian Code of Ethics: • Factor analysis- reduces a large number of correlations among many measures to a smaller number of clusters • Inferential statistics- tell us how confident we can be in drawing conclusions about a population based on findings obtained from a sample • Statistical significance- means that is it unlikely that the particular finding occurred by chance alone • Null hypothesis- states that any observed differences between the samples are due to chance • Mental representation- include images, ideas, concepts, principles • Language- a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in a way that can generate an infinite number of possible messages and meaning • Psycholinguistics- scientific study of the psychological aspects of language, such as how peo
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