2 kinds of causality - causality that exists in the physical world gravity etc, causality of non physical - one thought causes another thought etc! 5th of a second they lifted their nger they reported to generate lifting nger. Stages of sleep! brain wave - neurons starting and stopping ring signals together. times/second = hz! awake v sleep ! Awake! alert and attentive - beta waves - brain is producing waves 15-30 hz range. eyes closed and relaxed - alpha waves - 8-12 hz. Sleep ! non-rem - body is very active but brain is somewhat inactive! Memory consolidation - process that happens during sleep ! evolutionary models! as we age we! sleep less- newborns, 16-18 hours a day. Rem sleep behaviour disorder - naturally dont have sleep paralysis, act out dreams, ! approx. 25% : asked 45 seconds after sleep !