PSYCO104 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Unconditional Positive Regard, Tabula Rasa, Folk Psychology

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What is Psychology??
“PSYCHE”
- Mind/thought
- Inner experience
- Mental processes
Scientific study of behaviour and their mind
- Behaviour: refers to actions and responses that we can see
- Mind: refers to internal states and processes, such as thoughts/feelings, that cannot
be seen
For example; feeling of love for someone cannot be seen(mind), but it is seen when said “i
love you” (behaviour)
Goals of psych
- Describe b
- Explain b
- Predict b
- Control b
Psychology is a social science
- Psychologists use sci methods to empirically test their theories
Psychology benefits society and enhances our lives
- Psychologists apply their theories to understand and improve the world around us
Basic Vs Applied research
- B: knowledge for its own sake
- A: whereas applied research involves the application of knowledge derived from
basic research to solve practical problems
What is not psychology??
- Sociology (groups rather than indiv)
- Parapsychology
- Folk psychology
The Major Psychological Perspectives
1. Biological
- Studied the nervous system, hormones, brain chemistry, heredity and evolutionary influences
2. Learning
- Studied environment and experience, environmental determinants of observable
behaviour,environmental influences, observation and imitation, beliefs and values
3. Cognitive
- . Studied thinking, memory, language, problem solving and perceptions
4. Sociocultural
- Social and cultural contexts, social rules and roles, groups, relationships, cultural norms,
values,expectations
5. Psychodynamic
a. Unconscious thoughts, desires, conflicts
Psychology In Hospital
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1. Clinical Psychology
- Mental problems/disorders
- Diagnosis & treatment
2. Counselling
- Common crises(divorce)
- Career advice
3. Health
- psychological/social factors in physical illness
- Prevention, treatment, rehabilitation
Psyc in school
1. Educational
- Guidance to students, parents & teachers
- Special students
- Effectiveness of learning & teaching
2. School
- Common crises/ mental probs of students teachers in school setting
Psych in academy (actual)
1. Cognitive/ experimental
- Basic psychological processes
- Laboratory experiments
- Learning, probs solving, language, memory
2. Developmental
- Change in psychological process in the life span
- From birth to death
3. Biological
- The relationship b/w the n. System and behaviour
- Brain imaging/electrical recording
4. Personality
- What makes people unique
- People’s behav across time and situations
5. Social
- How other influence indiv
- Cause and consequence of interpersonal behav
6. Cultural
- How cultures influence
7. Sports
- Psyc factors affects sport performance
- Exercise & techq to help others
8. Comparative
- Behaviour of non-human animals
- Comparing
Psych in Field
1. Industrial
- Select & evaluate employees
2. Organizational
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- Work environ/managment styles
- Promote productivity & worker satisfaction
3. Forensic
- legal/mental evalutions for defendants
- Child abuse
Levels of Analysis
- Biological (brain process, hormones, genetic, evolutionary adaptations)
- Environmental( physical,social factors = cultural)
- Psychological (mental process, motives)
Example, when we first exposed to cultural norms as children = environmental, but once we
make norms of our own, they become part of how we see the world = psychological
Historical Foundations of Psychology
Nativism
- knowledge/skills are hardwired to brain @ birth
Rationalism
- H. body is an “animal machine” that can be scientifically
- Body and mind are diff things : material vs spiritual substance
Empiricism
- “Blank slate”
- At birth we are blank, and all our knowledge is acquired through experience
Modern foundations of Psychology
Structuralism
- Subject matter of psych = consciousness
- Assumes that consciousness could be broken down into basic elements
- Uses the method of introspection (the examination or observation of one's own
mental and emotional processes)
- Uses reaction time (RT)
Functionalism
- Focuses on the adaptive purpose/ friction of human behaviour
- How psych could be used to improve human life
PSYCHOANALYSIS/ PSYCHODYNAMICS
- Freud (physician) convinced that an unconscious part of the mind influences
behaviour, he developed a theory PSYCHOANALYSIS
Analysis of internal and unconscious psychological forces
- Proposed humans have inborn sexual and aggressive drive and because these
desires are punished at childhood, we learn to fear them and become anxious when
we are @ their presence
- This anxiety makes us create defense mechanism
- This ongoing struggle b/w conflicting forces is dynamic in nature hence=
psychodynamic
Modern PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORY
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PSYCO104 Full Course Notes
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PSYCO104 Full Course Notes
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Document Summary

Scientific study of behaviour and their mind. Behaviour: refers to actions and responses that we can see. Mind: refers to internal states and processes, such as thoughts/feelings, that cannot be seen. For example; feeling of love for someone cannot be seen(mind), but it is seen when said i love you (behaviour) Psychology benefits society and enhances our lives. Psychologists use sci methods to empirically test their theories. Psychologists apply their theories to understand and improve the world around us. A: whereas applied research involves the application of knowledge derived from basic research to solve practical problems. Studied the nervous system, hormones, brain chemistry, heredity and evolutionary influences: learning. Studied environment and experience, environmental determinants of observable behaviour,environmental influences, observation and imitation, beliefs and values: cognitive. Studied thinking, memory, language, problem solving and perceptions: sociocultural. Social and cultural contexts, social rules and roles, groups, relationships, cultural norms, values,expectations: psychodynamic, unconscious thoughts, desires, conflicts. Effectiveness of learning & teaching: school.