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Relig 240 FInal Review.docx

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Religious Studies
Neil Dalal

Religion 240 – Introduction to Buddhism – Final Review Names and Terms: Mahā kasyapa Monk who was the only one to understand the Buddha when he just held up a flower at a teaching on Vulture Peak he smiled – there was a mental/wordless transmission of the Buddha’s teaching to him – “The Eye of Dharma” teachings were outside of scriptures – mind of nirvana 1 Zen patriarch (story that Zen comes from Buddha himself) Bodhidharma 28th Zen patriarch supposedly came to China from India in 520 CE, first zen patriarch to bring Zen to China Meets Emperor Wu – makes merit as much as he can – but Bodhidharma tells Emperor hasn’t made any merit because his intention was selfish Tells emperor – “no noble truth, only empty void” sits in cave for 9 years, legs waste away, supposedly cuts off eyelids to stay awake – eyelids planted is the origin of the tst plant connection to the tea ceremony and 1 Chinese zen patriarch his disciple – Hui-ko – wouldn’t take him at first, cuts his arm off, koan between them doesn’t make sense logically (Hui-ko becomes next Zen patriarch) Rinzai Rinzai Zen promoted by Shaku Soen and then most influential of his students was D. T. Suzuki one of main Zen schools remaining after Great Persecution in China Japanese word, in Chinese - Linji adopted by samurai (more popular than Soto, but both adopted by warriors), very austere and simplistic monastic life, harsh – thinks Soto too soft/passive (sit there like withered stumps) would meditate outside in cold –if you fell asleep would hit you with sword or yell Zen and sword fighting – have to control your mind and be aware of everything this school and Soto went through Korea then Japan monk Eisai (1141-1st5) travels to China, not satisfied with Tendai monastery and returns with Rinzai and 1 tea seeds to Japan Focus on koans and sudden enlightment – Recognition model of enlightenment (model of Hui-neng) – something naturally pure like Buddha nature cannot be polluted, no need to clean mind/mirror, have to break through our notion of purity Koan can drive you into enlightenment quickly – deep introspection Soto other major school of Zen remained and continued after Great Persecution in China went through to Korea from China then to Japan monk Dogen (1200-1253) also travels to China for long time, brings back Soto to Japan Focus on Zazen sitting mediation (less focus on koans) Gradual enlightenment position – Purification Model of enlightenment, like cleaning dust off of mind, getting rid of defilements that pollute our mind, but Buddha nature is pure but hidden (oscured by dirt of defilements), clean the mind and Buddha nature like a mirror will reflect the truth Zazen sitting meditation or Zen meditation – cross legged or kneeling simple types of mediations like breath coming in and out or watching mind’s stream of thoughts Tulku reincarnated master – ideally high Lamas should be able to direct their rebirth out of compassion (bodhisattva vow), reincarnate in a lineage in a certain area for a certain people elaborate testing system most important one for Dalai Lama – great care for accuracy also include Panchen Lamas, Gyelwa Karmapas and minor incarnations Intense practices on finding them – astrology, divination, pearl relics from cremations, ashes point towards rebirth current Dalai Lama (14 ) – monks went to lake for visions got turquoise colour and image of monastery and syllables, found boy Hlamo Dondrup, identified his prayer beads th and the Rinpoches, chose many objects of 13 Dalai Lama Vajra weapon – monks don’t use it as one (symbol in one hand, other hand a bell) common in Tantra in Tibet the vajra is the male and the female is the bell vajra is the means/skill to get to wisdom and bell represents ultimate wisdom used in ritual in Tibet Mand ̣ ̣ala symbolically arranged visualized figures in structured arenas/worlds shows importance of ritual and iconography in Tantra can be a ritual offering to a guru teacher diagram/circle of organized divinites or representation of a cosmological world: cosmos consist of Mount Meru sourrounded by 4 continents, and a great ocean, encircled by cosmic fence These circular images iconic but also symbolic and abstract today Tibetan Buddhists make them with sand and then destroy them – impermanence Blueprint for enlightenment – mediation journey through them, either bridge between you and Buddha land or ignorance and enlightenment, in order to go within yourself and discover no self In Center – image either of Buddha meaning Buddha nature, or of a bodhisattva with a consort a Tantra homology – diagram/stupas/temple/image can represent something much bigger or your inner you 4 gateways to enter into mundala – centre inner sanctum (representing Buddha nature) Padmasambhava magical Tantra monk – invited to Tibet (by king Trisong Detsen) to get rid of demons after they were blamed on Indian monk (Santaraksita) Indigenous idea of native demons – he was an “exorcist” and invited by successor of king who ‘started’Buddhism there (Song-tse-gam-po and his 2 wives who brought back images and statue of Buddha) st Founded? 1 monastery in Tibet (Samye Monastery) – to weigh down demons Nyingma school traces back to Santaraksita and Padmasambhava quote – planes, trains, Tibet/dharma to land of red man, kind of prophecy (recent Tibetan immigration to the states) Gelukpa Geluk tradition – the new Kadampa, traces back toAtisa, a reform movement bringing back monastic ideals of discipline and celibacy aka Yellow Hats Atisa – second movement of Buddhism into Tibet after persecutions (emphasized Perfection of Wisdom literature, Nagarjuna andAsanga’s bodhisattva path, monastic discipline) has the lineage of the Dalai Lamas – incarnations of bodhisattvaAvalokitesvara patron of Tibet, reborn as a child and have to wait/find him, large gaps between Lamas When incarnation found – brought to capital Lhasa and installed in Potala Palace political issues with Dalai Lama dying mysteriously before they are old enough to rule – power held by regent (high up monk) in between Lamas founded by Tsong Khapa – last sect to emerge, founded Ganden university political control/voice in Tibet (most influential) and have vast educational systems 15 century – Geluk monk Sonam Gyatso meets Mongolian leader, he is given the title Dalai Lama, but considers himself the second one th 13 Dalai Lama – previous, when China and British in control and want Tibet, realizes he hastho modernize or they will have no allies, warns of imminent danger of religion 14 Dalai Lama – current, born 1935, made Dalai Lama at 16, interesting story of how they found him, flees capital when communist china overruns Tibet 1959 Geshe – scholastic and trained monk, highest education Nyingma trace back to Santaraksita and Padmasambhava, and the Samye monastery – “ancients” Dzogchen – direct path to oneness doctrines based on ‘revealed’tantric texts not always accepted by other schools World parliament of religions 1893 in Chicago –Asian religions gained exposure and brought together with modernity monk Anugarika Dharmapala – Sri Lankan Theravadan monk Shaku Soen – Zen, his disciples came back to U.S. (D.T. Suzuki largest Zen influence inAmerica) Hindu Suami Vivelcananda – started Vedanta society focused on reason and experience and science – trying to expose religions, can arrive at them with logic and reason (non-theistic), focus on psychology, like a science experimental mystical/growth/enlightenment experience as a result of practices(experiment) now western Buddhism movements grounded in reason, experience and science Essay Topics – Specific understanding, other themes in course, own interpretations Zen koans – use, interpretations and leading to enlightenment: Form of Zen meditation – means “public case”, apparently enigmatic account of sayings/actions of a previous Zen master, leads to sudden enlightenment or portrays someones enlightenment typically assigned by teacher to their students in an effort to provide some concrete images that
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