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SOC 100 - Final Exam Review

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University of Alberta
Alison Dunwoody

SOCIOLOGY100 CHAPTER 1 Sociology is: a) The systematic study of society b) The unsystematic study of society c) “statistical stuff and heavy-duty theoretical bullshit” d) All of the above It’s “all of the above.” Sociology is defined as “the social science that studies the development, structure, and functioning of human society”. Sociological imagination – (as described by Mills) the capacity to shift from the perspective of the personal experience to the grander, societal scale that has caused or influenced that personal experience. C. Wright Mills argued that when we create and communicate sociological knowledge, our ideas must show not just “how society works” but “how society works” in terms of our own personal lives. Confucius – Chinese philosopher (first sociologist) Ibn Khaldun – Arab scholar (first to carry out a systematic study of sociological subjects and set his thoughts down in writing) Max Weber – German sociologist, identification of a set of values embodied in early Protestantism that he believed led to the development of modern capitalism. He called this set of values the Protestant ethic. Different kinds of Sociology a) Structural Functionalism – Functionalism focuses on how social systems, in their entirety, operate and produce consequences. The functionalist approach was fused with structuralism as a way of explaining social forms and their contributions to social cohesion. a. Functionalism – a sociological approach that involves explaining social structures in terms of their functions (i.e. what they do for society) b. Emile Durkheim – considered one of the founders of modern sociology. He coined the term social fact. Social facts are patterned ways of acting, thinking and feeling that exist outside of any one individual but exert social control over all people. Each social fact has three essential characteristics: i. It was developed prior to and separate from any individual (I didn’t create it) ii. It can be seen as being characteristic of a certain group (Asians are good at math) iii. It involves a constraining force that pushes individuals into acting that way (gotta drink) c. Robert K. Merton identified three types of functions: i. Manifest functions – both intended and readily recognized ii. Latent functions – largely unintended and unrecognized iii. Latent dysfunctions – unintended and produce socially negative consequences b) Conflict Theory (conflict approach) – based on “four C’s”: conflict, class, contestation and change. This approach is predicated on the idea that conflict exists in all large-scale societies, asserts that in every large scale society, class has always operated, contends that the functions of society can be contested or challenged based on the question what group does this function best serve? And it involves the assumption that society either will or should be changed. a. Karl Marx – founded modern communism. Conflict was all about class; the division of society into a hierarchy of groups. He believed that conflict between class of capitalists (the bourgeoisie) and the class of workers (the proletariat) would initiate a socialist revolution that would produce a classless, or egalitarian, society. c) Symbolic Interactionism – looks at the meaning of the daily social interactions of individuals a. George Herbert Mead – examined the way that self is constructed as we interact with others b. Herbert Blumer – coined “symbolic interaction”. Argued that social systems are simply abstractions that do not exist independently of individual relations and interactions. In other words, social systems (things like friendship, education, economy) are simply by-products of our personal dealings with one another c. Harold Garfinkel – founded a method associated symbolic interaction called ethnomethodology to explain how people use social interaction to maintain a sense of reality in any given situation. i. Macro-sociology – approach that involves looking at the large-scale structure and dynamics of society as a whole ii. Micro-sociology – approach that focuses on the plans, motivations, and actions of the individual or a specific group d. Erving Goffman introduced total institution to sociology i. Total Institution – institutions such as the military, hospitals and asylums that regulate all aspects of an individual’s life Sociology by Audience: Professional, Critical, Policy, and Public Sociology a) Professional Sociology – has as its audience the academic world of sociology departments, scholarly journals, professional associations (such as ASA), and conferences b) Critical Sociology – addresses the same audience that professional sociology does but for a different purpose. Its aim is to make sure that professional sociologists do not become so lost in esoteric debates that they lose sight of the issues of fundamental importance to the discipline. a. Michel Foucault – major intellectual force. Talked about the misleading nature of what he termed “totalitarian discourse”. i. Totalitarian discourse – any universal claim about how knowledge or understanding is achieved. 1. Discourse – a conceptual framework with its own internal logic and underlying assumptions. Different disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, have their own discourses. ii. Archaeology of knowledge – the process of “digging down” to find out how a piece of information was constructed, typically in order to discover or expose flaws in the way supposed facts or truths were established b. Dorothy Smith – experienced first-hand the kind of systemic discrimination that would become the subject of her first work. She developed standpoint theory directly out of her own experience as a woman discriminated against by male colleagues in the academic community i. Standpoint theory – the view that knowledge is developed from a particular lived position, or “standpoint”, making objectivity impossible ii. Relations of ruling – concerns mainstream sociology’s tendency to reinforce relations of ruling. Denying the subjective standpoint further entrenches the dominance of the rulers over the ruled. c) Policy Sociology – generating sociological data for use in the development of social policy for governments or corporations. Education, health, and social welfare are three main areas that policy sociology serves. d) Public Sociology – addresses an audience outside of the academy The Development of Canadian Sociology a) Carl Addington Dawson – reflected two elements of early Canadian sociology: the social gospel movement and hands-on social work a. Social gospel – apply the human welfare principles of Christianity to the social, medical, and psychological ills brought on by industrialization and uncontrolled capitalism b) Horace Miner – work is best described as ethnography, a study of a community based on extensive fieldwork, whose primary research activities include direct observation and talking with the people observed. a. Folk society – Miner described the rural peasants and farmers as folk society. c) Political economy – interdisciplinary approach involving sociology, political science, economics, law, anthropology and history. d) Harold – Innis – argued that the availability of staples – resources such as fish, fur, minerals, and wheat – shaped the economic and social development of Canada e) John Porter – talked about cultural mosaic – another word for cultural societies in which people can keep their differing identities – and he also talked about melting pot – a phenomenon where immigrants are expected to lose their ethnic background and assimilate into the dominant society. Potter also coined the term vertical mosaic – nation or society in which there is a hierarchy between different ethnic groups. CHAPTER 2 Research methodology – system of methods a researcher uses to gather data on a particular question Auguste Comte coined the word sociology – basis of Comte’s sociology was positivism a) Positivism – involves a belief that the methods used to study the natural sciences and the supposed objectivity of these methods can be applied just as well to the social sciences with no accommodation made for the biases, or any other aspects of personal life of the social scientist Outside perspective – the viewpoint(s) of those outside of the group or culture being studied. The outsider perspective was once considered a privileged position, with the outsider viewed as the expert Insider perspective – the viewpoint(s) of those who experience the subject being studied or written about Qualitative versus Quantitative Research a) Qualitative research – involves the close examination of characteristics that cannot be counted or measured (individual cases that don’t fit into the larger model) a. Ethnography – direct observation and extended field research to produce a thick, naturalistic description of a people and their culture. Ethnography seeks to uncover the symbols and categories members of the given culture use to interpret their world i. Semi-structured interviews – informal, face-to-face interviews designed to cover specific topics without the rigid structure of a questionnaire ii. Participant observation – entails both observing people as an outsider would and actively participating in the various activities of the studied people’s lives iii. Informants – insiders who act as interpreters or intermediaries while helping the researcher become accepted by the community studied b. Institutional Ethnography – recognizes that any institution or organization can be seen as having two sides, each associated with different kind of data. One side represents ruling interests and the other is the informant i. Ruling interests – the interests of the organization, particularly its administration, or else the interests of those who are dominant in the society ii. Informant – someone who works in the institution outside of management or the administration 1. The data associated with the informant’s side is experiential (based on the experience of the informant) iii. Disjuncture – separation (of ideas) c. Case Study Approach – a research design that takes as its subject a single case or a few selected examples of a social entity – such as communities, social groups, employers, events – and emplys a variety of methods to study them. (Descriptive reports, descriptions, evaluations of policies after implementation in an organization, etc) i. Best practices – strategies with a proven history of achieving desired results more effectively or consistently than similar methods used in the past ii. Narrative – stories peoples tell about themselves, theirs situations and others d. Psychoanalysis as Theory and Method i. Sigmund Freud – psychoanalysis – approach to psychological study that involves hypothesized stages of development and components of the self (id, ego, eros, superego and thanatos) Used by sociologists to look at individual relationships to society e. Content Analysis – studying a set of cultural artifacts or events by systematically counting them (to show which ones dominate) and then interpreting the themes they reflect i. Cultural artifacts – include children’s books, billboards, novels, newspaper articles, advertisements, artwork, articles of clothing, etc f. Semiotics – refers to study of signs and signifying practices i. A sign is made of up two parts: a signifier, which carries meaning and a signified, the meaning that is carried 1. Objective description – an acceptable level of agreement among analysts 2. Systematic description – the same criteria applied to all data 3. Descriptive categories – specific quantitative procedure permitting a dregree of precision in measurement 4. Deliberate restriction – the manifest, or ‘surface’, content of the message alone is measured g. Discourse Analysis i. Traditional – conversation, a speech or a written text (examine the discourse found in a given ethnography) ii. Second type of discourse analysis focuses more on the methodological practices of genealogy and deconstruction (refers to entire ‘fields’) h. Genealogy – method of examining the history of the second type of discourse i. Edward Said – Orientalism – refers to ‘a corporate institution for dealing with the Orient – dealing with it by making statements about it, authorising views of it, etc: in short, Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient b) Quantitative research – focuses on social elements that can be counted or measured, which can therefore be used to generate statistics a. Statistics – involves the use of numbers to map social behaviour and beliefs b. Operational definitions – take abstract or theoretical concepts – poverty, abuse, or working class – and transform them into concepts that are concrete, observable, measurable and countable (difficult to do well) i. Poverty – a state of doing or being without what are considered essentials ii. Poverty line – the arbitrary dividing point, usually based on household income, that separates the poor from the rest of society iii. Absolute poverty – poverty calculated in absolute material terms. To exist in absolute poverty is to be without sufficient nutritious food, clean and safe shelter, access to education, etc. iv. Market Basket Measurement (MBM) an estimate of the cost of a specific basket of goods and services for a given year, assuming that all items in the basket were entirely provided for out of the spending of the household. Having an income lower than the MBM constitutes low income or poverty v. Relative poverty – a state of poverty based on a comparison with others in the immediate area or country vi. Low Income Cutoffs (LICOs) – a measure of poverty derived by calculating the percentage of a family’s income spent on food, clothing, and shelter vii. Low Income Measure (LIM-IAT) – a measure of poverty calculated by identifying those households with total incomes (after taxes) half that of the median income in Canada c. Variables and Correlations i. Variable – a concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can vary or change from one person, group, culture or time to another CHAPTER 3 High culture – the culture deemed to be sophisticated, civilized and possessing greate taste within a society Culture – a social system (sometimes contested) comprising behaving behaviour, beliefs, knowledge, practices, values, and material such as buildings, tools, and sacred items Contested – describing a practice whose moral goodness or badness, normalcy or deviance, etc., is disputed by some members of society Authenticity – the quality of being true to the traditions of a people. The modern representatives of the people themselves and ‘experts’ from outside the community often contest authenticity Dominant culture – the culture that through its political and economic power is able to impose its values, language, and ways of behaving and interpreting behaviour on a given society Subculture – a group that is organized around occupations or hobbies differing from those of the dominant culture but that is not engaged in any significant opposition onto the dominant culture Counterculture – groups that reject selected elements of the dominant culture, such as clothing styles or sexual norms Popular culture – commercial culture based on popular taste Mass culture – the culture of the majority, when big companies and powerful governments produce that culture Dominants – the group within a society that has the most political and social power, whose culture or subculture is seen as ‘the’ culture of a country Subordinate cultures – groups who feel the power of the dominant culture and exist in opposition to it Dominant countercultures – treated with lighthearted criticism and mild restrictions High culture versus Popular Culture a) Pierre Bourdieu – cultural capital – refers to the knowledge and skills needed to acquire the sophisticated tastes that mark someone as a person of high culture. The more cultural capital you have, the ‘higher’ your cultural class Mass Culture and Popular Culture a) Agency – b) Jean Baudrillard – simulacra – c) Simulacrum – d) Victimology – two contrasting meanings: a. More general meaning is the study, within criminology, of people who are victims of crime b. An outlook that diminishes the victims of crime by portraying them as people who cannot help themselves, who cannot exercise agency Norms a) Norms – rules or standards of behaviour that are expected of a group, society, or a culture b) Sactions: a. Positive sanction – ways of rewarding people for following the norms of a society (spread peace) b. Negative sanction – ways of punishing people who ’break the rules’ of the cultural norms (laughing at and excluding an individual) c) Folkways, Mores, and Taboos: a. William Sumner distinguished three kinds of norms that differ on how they are treated: i. Folkways – norms that SHOULD NOT be violated as they are less respected ii. Mores – norms that MUST NOT be violated as they are considered criminal offenses iii. Taboos – Deeply ingrained in our social consciousness that the mere thought or mention of it is enough to disgust or cause revulsion in us d) Symbols – cultural items, either tangible or intangible, that come or take on tremendous meaning within a culture or subculture of a society Values a) Values – standards used by a culture to describe abstract qualities usch as goodness, beauty, and justice, and to assess the behaviour of others b) Patriarchy – a social system in which men hold political, cultural, and social power. Patriarchy is visible in societies where only male political leaders are elected and where the media and the arts are dominated by male views Ethnocentrism a) Ethnocentrism – someone holds up one culture as the standard by which all cultures are to be judged Reverse Ethnocentrism a) Xenocentrism – a preference for foreign goods and tastes based on the belief that anything foreign must be better than the same thing produced domestically b) Reverse ethnocentrism – involves assuming, often blindly, that a particular culture that is not one’s own is better than one’s own in some way. c) Noble savage – the romantic belief that indigenous people, or ‘savages’, are superior in outlook and lifestyle because they don’t live in the industrialized and urbanized environment of the person invoking the image Cultural Relativism – an approach to studying the context of an aspect of another culture Sociolinguistics – study of language as part of culture a) Dialect – variety of a language, a version that is perhaps different from others in terms of pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar b) Sapir-Whorf hypothesis – suggests that linguistic determinism (or causation) exists. The way each of us views and understands the world is shaped by the language we speak CHAPTER 4 Primary socialization – the earliest socialization that a child receives Secondary socialization – any socialization that occurs later than the primary socialization in the life of a child Determinism – the degree to which an individual’s behaviour, attitudes, and other ‘personal’ characteristics are determined, or caused, by a specific factor. XYY males – men and boys who differ from the ‘normal’ XY chromosome pattern. They are associated with above-average height, a tendency to have acne and somewhat more impulsice and antisocial behaviour and slightly lower intelligence than ‘normal’ men and boys Social or Cultural Determinism: Behaviourism a) Behaviourism – school of thought in psychology that takes a strong cultural determinist position. Emphasizes the causative power of learning in the development of behaviour b) Edward Thorndike – Law of Effect has two parts: a. If you do something and it is rewarded, the likelihood of your doing it again increases b. If you do something and it is punished or ignored, the likelihood of doing it again decreases i. This is behaviour modification Agents of Socialization a) Groups that had a significant impact on someone’s socialization (i.e. family, peer group, neighborhood/community, school, mass media, the legal system, culture generally) a. George Mead – believed that children internalize normals and values they observe, incorporating them into their way of being i. Significant others are those key individuals – primarily parents, to a lesser degree older siblings and close friends – whom young children imitate and model themselves after ii. Generalized others – a child begins to take into account the attitudes, viewpoints, and general expectations of the society she or he has been socialized into iii. Mead identified developmental sequence for socialization: 1. Preparatory stage – pure imitation 2. Play stage – role-taking – assuming the perspective of significant others 3. Game stage – the child considers at once the perspective of several roles b) Charles Cooley – looking-glass self: a. How you imagine you appear to others b. How you imagine those others judge your appearance c. How you feel as a result of that c) National character – the personality type of entire nations d) Peer group – a social group sharing key characteristics such as age, social position, and interests e) Bopi – a playground that is almost exclusively territory of children Longitudinal study – a study that continues over time as the subjects get older Observational learning theory – the theory that children acquire ‘aggressive scripts’ for solving social problems through watching violence on television Desensitization theory – the idea that increased exposure to media violence blunts, or desensitizes, natural feelings of revulsion at the sight or thought of violence Habitus – wide-ranging set of socially acquired characteristics, including for example, definitions of ‘manners’ and ‘good taste’ Reproduction – the means by which classes, particularly the upper or dominant class, preserve status difference among classes Adolescents and Risk Behaviour a) Risk behaviour – driving at unsafe speeds, unsafe sex, drug and alcohol abuse b) Narrow socialization – socialization in which obedience and conformity to the standards and expectations of the community are emphasized and punishment for deviation is practiced c) Broad socialization – socialization in which individualism and independence are promoted Resocialization – whenever an individual shifts into a new social environment a) Rite of passage – a ritual marking a change of life from one status to another, typically following training b) Confirmation/Bar mitzvah (boys)/Bat mitzvah (girls) – when adolescents become adults in faith c) Total institutions – they regulate all aspects of an individual’s life d) Degradation ceremony – a kind of rite of passage where a person is stripped of his or her individuality CHAPTER 5 Erving Goffman – early leader in the development of theory related to social interaction a) Dramaturgical approach – a way of approaching sociological research as if everyday life were taking place on the stage of a theatre, with a FRONT STAGE – public display – and a BACK STAGE – private, personal, or more intimate encounters. b) Impression management – Goffman’s term for the strategies we adopt when presenting ourselves publicly Social Status a) Status – recognized social position that someone occupies b) Status set – collection of statuses that someone has c) Achieved status – entering a status that you weren’t born into d) Ascribed status – a status one is born into e) Social mobility – ability to move from status to another status Matrilineal – denoting kinship determined along the mother’s line Master Status a) Everett Hughes – master status – signifies the status of an individual that dominates all of his or her other statuses in most social contexts, and plays the greatest role in the formation of the individual’s social indentty b) Howard Becker – labelling theory – deals with the negative effects on self-identity and behaviour of people outside of the majority when they are assigned a name or label that has negative connotations Status Hierarchy a) Status hierarchy – statuses can be ranked from high to low based on prestige and power b) Status consistency – result when all of the social status hierarchies line up c) Status inconsistency – when one status is highly ranked in one status category but not in others Marginalization – the experience of being treated as insignificant or of being moved beyond the margin of mainstream society Social Roles a) Role – set of behaviours and attitudes that is associated with a particular status b) Role strain – conflict between roles within the role set of a particular status c) Role conflict – occurs when a person is forced to reconcile incompatible expectations generated from two or more statuses he or she holds d) Role exit – the process of disengaging from a role that has been central to one’s identity and attempting to establish a new role Thomas theorem – situations we define as real become as real in their consequences Critical management studies – critical of traditional theories of management Feminist Organizations a) Formal social movement organizations – professionalized, bureaucratic, inclusive, and make few demands of members b) Small groups or collectives – organized informally, which require large commitments of time, loyalty and material resources from its members c) Service-provider organizations – combine elements of both formal and small-group organizations Complexity theory – systems thinking a) General systems theory – aimed at modelling and designing human organizations b) Complexity theory (more recent) – examine organizations in various ways in the natural and social sciences and in the humanities c) Chaos theory – precursor to complexity theory, examines the unstable states within systems d) Self-organization/emergent complexity – spontaneous emergence of chaotic systems Bereaucracy a) Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels – in their theory of historical materialism, the origin of bureaucracy comes out of religion, state formation, commerce and technology b) Technocracy – controls power through specialized technical knowledge and information c) Max Weber a. Formal rationalization has four basic elements and different from other models of rationalization like substantive rationalization which involves the substance of values and ethical norms i. Efficiency ii. Quantification iii. Predictability iv. Control b. Disenchanted – lack of magic, fantasy and mystery Scientific management or Taylorism – eliminate wasteful or ‘inefficient’ motions or movements Social order – refers to social cohesion and how organizations and systems are held together Social control – which overt or covert coercion is used to ensure that norms and values are obeyed and supported Social oppression – describes the dominant-subordinate relationship involving groups or ‘categories’ of people, in which the dominant group benefits directly from the systemic abuse, exploitation, and injustice directed toward the subordinate group CHAPTER 6 - DEVIANCE Dominant culture – the culture that through its political and economic power is able to impose its values, language, and ways of behaving and interpreting behaviour on a given society Subculture – A group that is organized around occupations or hobbies differing from those of the dominant culture but that is not engaged in any significant opposition to the dominant culture Delinquent subculture – the subordinate culture of teenage gangs Status frustration – a feeling of failure to succeed in middle-class terms or institution Non-utilitarian – denoting actions that are not designed to gain financial rewards or desired possessions Norms – rules or standards of behaviour that are expected of a group, society or culture Sanctions – the reactions to the behaviour of the individuals Negative sanctions – negative reactions to their behaviour Positive sanctions – positive reactions to their behaviour Overt characteristics of deviance – the actions or qualities taken as explicitly violating the cultural norm Covert characteristics of deviance – the unstated qualities that might make a particular group a target for sanctions (include age, ethnic background, and sex) The Importance of the Cultural Component in Deviance a) Vision quest – Family guy b) Hallucination – an image of something that is not considered to be ‘objectively’ there The Contested Nature of Deviance a) Contested – describing a practice whose moral goodness or badness, normalcy or deviance, etc., is disputed by some members of society b) Conflict Deviance – behaviour that is subject to debate over whether or not it is deviant. Examples of conflict deviance include marijuana use and ‘creative accounting’ on tax returns Social Construction versus Essentialism a) Social constructionism – certain elements of social life – including deviance, but also gender, race, and other elements – are not natural but are artificial, created by society or culture b) Essentialism – argues that there is something ‘natural’, ‘true’, ‘universal’, and therefore ‘objectively determined’ about these aspects of social life. c) Stigma – a human attribute that is seen to discredit an individual’s social identity a. Bodily stigmata – any of various physical deformities b. Moral stigmata – perceived flaws in the character of an individual c. Tribal stigmata – being of a particular lineage or family that has been stigmatized (ex. The family of a murderer or gang member) The Other Other – an exotic, often fearful image conjured up by the dominant culture of a racialized subordinate culture, or by a colonizing nation of the colonized. The ‘other’ is an image conjured up by the dominant culture within a society or by a colonizing nation of the colonized. ‘Race’ and Deviance: To Be Non-White is Deviant To racialize deviance is to link particular ethnic groups with certain forms of deviance, and to treat these groups differently because of that connection. Warrior frame – gives a narrow view of a situation, making nay sociological explanation partial, vague, and disconnected from any ‘big picture’ examination of the event. Relations of ruling – the sociological presentation essentially serves the federal government’s public relations campaign to vilify, to defend its own inaction and to downplay its failure to live up to stand up for minorities when they are abused Racializing deviance – making ethnic background a covert characteristic of deviance, as though all people of a particular ethnic group were involved in the same supposedly deviant behaviour Multicultualism – the set of policies and practices designed to promote respect for cultural differences – the pressure to assimilate (ex. Become culturally the same as the dominant culture) is persistent Moral entrepreneur – a person, sometimes a member of a group, who tires to convince other of the existence of a particular social problem that the group or individual has identified and defined. The moral entrepreneur labours to create consensus on an issue on which there is no pre-existing consensus. Racial Profiling – one way in which deviance is racialized. It is any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security or public protection, that relies on stereotypes about race, colour, ethnicity, ancestry, religion, or place of origin, or a combination of these, rather than on reasonable suspicion, to single out an individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment. (Age and/or gender can also be factors in racial profiling) Gender and Deviance: To be Female is Deviant a) Normalized – (i.e. made to seem ‘normal’, ‘right’, and ‘good’) through customs, laws, and cultural production b) Misogyny – literally means ‘hating women’ c) Patriarchal construct – refers to social conditions being thought of or structured in a way that favours men and boys over women and girls. Class and Deviance: To be Poor is Deviant a) Social resources – refers to knowledge of the law and legal system, ability to afford a good lawyer, influential social connections, and capacity to present oneself in a way that is deemed ‘respectable’. b) Impression management (Goffman’s concept) – ‘the control of personal information flow to manipulate how other people see and treat you’ c) White collar crime (introduced by Sutherland) – ‘crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation d) Corporate crimes (described by Clinard and Quinney) – (1) offences committed by corporate officials on behalf of the corporation they represent, or (2) the offences of the corporation itself e) Occupational crimes (described by Clinar and Quinney) – offenses committed by individuals for themselves in the course of their occupations, or by employers against their employees Ideology of Fag – in communities where homosexuality is regarded as deviant, negative sanctions can have a powerful influence on behaviour. In Canada, young men can influence the behaviour of other young men by sanctioning them with statements such as ‘that’s so gay’, or ‘you’re gay’. This practice is the ideology of fag. CHAPTER 7 - FAMILY Diversity of the Family a) Patrilineal – determining kinship along the male line b) Matrilineal – determining kinship along the female line c) Nuclear Family – includes a parent or parents and children d) Extended family – includes what a nuclear family is and in addition, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins e) –hwatsir- (means matrilineage) f) –yentio- (means to belong to a matrilineal clan) g) Simple household – consists of unrelated adults with or without children h) Complex household – includes two or more adults who are related but not married to each other and hence could reasonably be expected to live separately i) Families are dynamic – they change, adapting to changing circumstances j) Gender roles – the role that a culture or society assigns as ‘normal’ for men and women Changes in and Questions about the Canadian Family a) The marriage rate is decreasing while cohabitation rate is rising a. Crude marriage rage – the number of marriages per 1000 people in a population b. Common-law (or cohabiting) – interpersonal status that is legally considered marriage even though there has been no ceremony or any civil marriage contract c. A survey done in 1990 found that after 10 years of marriage, the breakup rate was 26 percent for those who had cohabited first and 16 percent for those who had not b) The age of first marriage is rising a. In 1921, the average age of first marriage for brides in Canada was 24.5 and 28 for grooms. In 2001, brides was 28.2 while grooms was 30.2. c) More women are having children in their thirties now than in earlier years a. In 1987, just 4 percent of women aged 35 and older gave birth for the first time; in 2005, the percentage rose to roughly 11 percent. b. Fecundity – a woman’s ability to conceive d) The number of children per family has dropped to below the ‘replacement rate’ a. Total Fertility Rate – an estimate of the average number of children that a woman between the ages of 15 and 49 will have in her lifetime if current age- specific fertility rates remain constant during her sexual years b. Replacement rate – the number of children a woman should have if the population is to continue at the same level. The replacement rate is 2.1 c. Sociologist and politicians will answer that Canada makes up for its low fertility rate with high levels of immigration – take note, however, that immigrants from countries with higher fertility rates soon begin to reproduce at a rate consistent with the fertility rate here in this country. e) There are more divorces a. The rate has jumped on several occasions over brief periods of time, but we can account for these, in part, by looking at changes to the legislation surrounding divorce f) There are more lone-parent families than before a. There is a strong connection between lone-parent families and poverty, especially where the mother is the family head g) There are more people living alone than before h) Children are leaving home at a later age a. Cluttered nest – adult children continue to live at home with their parents (opposite of empty nest) b. Empty nest – a household in which children have moved out of the home Delayed Life Transitions - Rod Beaujot links together some of the trends we have just been discussing as part of a phenomenon he calls delayed life transitions. - Delayed life transitions – we go through a number of major life transitions in our lifetime – getting a full-time job, going out to live on our own, getting married, having children, retiring. During the prosperious socioeconomic times of the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s, people went through what we could call ‘sped-up life transitions’, make these major life changes at a relatively young age. The situation has changed considerably and people today are making these transitions later and later in life Family in Quebec (The province with…) a) The highest cohabitation rate (20.5%) b) The lowest marriage rate (3.1 per 100,000) c) The highest divorce rate (45.7 per 100) d) The highest number of divorces among couples married less than 30 years - Another feature unique to Quebec is the province-wide support for same-sex marriage - Quebec was also shown to have the highest rate of approval for premarital and extramarital sex - Quebec had the third-lowest number of residents declaring they had ‘nor religion’ - The Catholic Church considers suicide a sin, but Quebec, the most Catholic provice, has the highest suicide rate in Canada, especially among men Conjugal Roles a) Conjugal (or marital) roles – distinctive roles of the husband and wife that result from the division of labour within the family b) Segregated – tasks, interests, and activities are clearly different c) Joint – many tasks, interests and activities are shared d) Earning and Caring: Changes in Conjugal Roles a. Complementary roles (Like Bott’s model of segregated roles) – cast men primarily as earners, breadwinners, doing paid work, with women involved primarily in the unpaid work of childcare and housework b. Companionate relationships – (like Bott’s model of joint relationship) – the roles overlap c. M. Reza Nakhaie – published ‘Housework in Canada: The National Picture’, a summary of his study demonstrating that gender was the single most important factor – above relative income and amount of available time – determining how much domestic labour or housework an individual did i. There is an inverse relationship between the hours of paid work a man does and the size of his share of the housework; the more paid hours he has, the smaller his share of the household work. However, the same is not true for women. An increase over 30 in woman’s hours of paid work per week correlated to an increase in her contribution to housework. d. Gender strategy – a plan of action through which a person tries to solve problems at hand, given the cultural notions of gender at play. These problems at hand include the fact that small children have to be take care of e. Occupational Segregation – women choose occupations in fields such as education and healthcare, which have the greatest flexibility in terms of childcare related work interruptions f. Work interruptions – include staying home to care for a sick child or taking a longer-term leave to care for a newborn e) Endogamy and Ethnicity a. Endogamy – ‘marrying within’. It is the practice of marrying someone of the same ethnic religious, or cultural group as oneself b. Exogamy – ‘marrying outside of one’s group’ Family and Ethnicity a) Nancy Mandell and Ann Duffy, in their text Canadian Families: Diversity, Conflict, and Change (1995), noted a similar connection between government immigration policy and the denial of family for women of colour a. It has been a policy of the government not to encourage the possibility of developing families among women of colour who came as domestic workers. Thus, their status as ‘single’ and as ‘temporary’ is deliberately organiszed by immigration policies b) Attacks on the Aboriginal Family a. The Aboriginal family also has long been a target of federal policy and government agents. An Indian agent used the Blackfood community’s need for food rations as a tool to ensure that the people remained monogamous b. Residential schools i. Residential schools – created with the almost explicit objective of keeping Aboriginal children away from the harmful influences of their parents and their home communities 1. Parents were discouraged from visiting, and those who did were closely monitored ii. Physical, emotional, and sexual abuse by residential school employees demoralized the students c. Sexual Sterilization i. Genocide – attempts to destroy a people by imposing measures designed to prevent births within the group ii. Eugenics – the flawed notion that a single gene responsible for intelligence was absent in ‘stupid people’ who would be capable of having only ‘stupid children’ iii. Scientific racism – used to justify prejudices based on the supposed genetic inferiority or ‘feeble-mindedness’ of certain groups immigrants to North America 1. Since it was used to support prejudice against the poor and homeless, it could also be held up as an example of scientific classism iv. As well, the test perpetuates a myth that we all have a general intelligence to which a single number can be assign d. The Sixties Scoop i. The UN’s definition of genocide also includes attempts to destroy a people by forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. This characterizes what has been referred to as Sixties Scroop, a program, which began in the 1960s, of removing large numbers of Aboriginal children from their families, their communities, and the Aboriginal world CHAPTER 8 – RELIGION Introduction a) Protestant (work) ethic (as described by Weber) – a set of values embodied in early Protestantism, believed to have led to the development of modern capitalism. The Protestant belief is that there was a predestined ‘elect’ who would be saved during the second coming of Christ; a person demonstrated that he or she belonged to this elect group by working hard and achieving material success. b) False Consciousness (used by Marx) – the belief that class-based hierarchy was justified on religious grounds (the way that God planned society to be) and that by simply toiling away, even under oppressive conditions, members of the lower class were really acting in the best interests of their class th th c) Social gospel – a movement in the late 19 and early 20 centuries in Canada, the US and various European countries to apply the human welfare principles of Christianity to the social, medical and uncontrolled capitalism The Sociocultural Elements of Religion a) Social Darwinist (or evolutional model) – the ‘primitive’ people had pesky spirits: ‘barbarians’ had nasty but ultimately impotent gods. Only ‘civilized people had a Supreme Ruler. a. Herbert Spencer, the early sociologist who coined the expression ‘survival of the fittest’, articulated such a position b) Emile Durkheim: The elementary Form of the Religious Life a. Emile Durkheim – he was a believer in la science positive, which can be translated a little too easily as ‘positive science’ but is better interpreted as ‘empirical science’: a type of study based on data that may be concretely perceived i. He hoped to develop a sociological model of religion that would apply to all religions c) What is Religion? a. Durkheim’s definition: “A religion is a unified system of b
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