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Sociology 100 Final Exam Review.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC100
Professor
Bickis Heidi
Semester
Fall

Description
Anthropocentrism – Ideas, theories, or behaviours centered on the belief that humans are the most important factor or actor in the natural world Nature/culture dualism – The binary opposition that divides humans form the rest of existence; it can take of related forms, such as non-human/human, body/mind and object/subject Emotional labour – The management, evocation and potential commodification of particular forms of emotional expression or suppression of other forms of emotional expression in order to satisfy the feeling rules of a particular social role, job, or relationship Feeling rules – Affecting rules that define and govern appropriate and inappropriate feeling in various circumstances, which may be at odds with other socially created or personal internalized feelings Gender policing – Practices that pressure, discipline, or penalize people to make the conform to specific standards of masculinity or femininity Male breadwinner model – A view that separates home and work along rigid gender lines, whereby men do paid work and women do care work, which reinforces the nuclear family model Inequality – Unequal reward and opportunities for different people or different group of people in society. There are economic (distribution of wealth), power (distribution of power) and social status inequalities (adults have more social status in society, lawyers and doctors are perceived to be the important people in society). Inequality talks on the notion of gender, class and race Difference – Saying something is different does not mean it is not equal, for example, the feminism in the 60s. Governance – The guiding of behavior through law, norms, morality, power structures, surveillance, etc. The process and practices that apply to policing vary significantly given the environment in which policing is applied. Governance in the realm of public policing must take into account legal and constitutional accountability and responsibilities Ideological domination – Ways of thinking and governing that preserve a society’s power structure to the disadvantage of those who are ruled Codification – A process by which the experiential, shared cultural voice of an emerging group is transformed into an official, dominant discourse, such that the original demands are reframed and now make sense differently Ethnomethodology – An alternative sociological theory/methodology that examines the tacit, taken for granted practices that constitute everyday social life Fictive kin relationships – People chosen to be family members that are not legally or biologically related Oppression - institutionalized power that is historically formed and continually perpetuated. It refers to certain groups of people to assume a dominant position over other groups and also means unequal access to power, resources, opportunities and acceptance for others Neo-liberalism – A social, political and economic regulatory system that is characterized by (among other things) the freedom of the market, privatizing government services, and shifting responsibility from government to individual Media effects – The various ways individuals or groups can be influenced by media content. Research on media effects often addresses dramatic issue such as violence, pornography or social stereotyping. Collective conscience – A society’s shared morality Gender – socially constructed elements of personhood (femininity and masculinity) Sex – biological characteristics (what make us either female or male) Emphasized femininity – a form of femininity, defined at ‘the level of mas social relations,’ that is based on women’s compliance with the subordination to men and ‘oriented to accommodating the interests and desires of men’. Social welfare – The various social services provided by a state for the benefit of its citizens such as student loans, health insurance and minimum wage laws. The eligibility of such welfare programs can be divided into 3 categories: universal (everyone gets it), contributory (you pay into it such as a pension plan) and means-tested (provided to people who show that lack economic resources to meet basic needs) Experiential knowledge – knowledge that is produced from a person’s lived reality Mad Movement – Groups of psychiatric survivors/consumers who fight against the oppressive techniques used by mental health system Political ecology – A perspective, based on the classical sociology of Marx, on how capitalist economic and political structures transform ecological material into material profit Citizenship – A type of identity within a defined territory that is usually deemed ‘good’ and is typically distinguished from outsider identities that are typically considered to be lacking in some way Colonialism – Historical and enduring processes (i.e. industrial schools, the reserve system and outlawing traditions) of subordinate indigenous cultural norms to Euro-Canadian ways of being Treaty – Agreement between two independent powers that recognized the autonomy of each nation and the ability of each to determine political status vis-à-vis the other. Nation – A population defined by a common culture, language and/or ethnicity Sovereignty – States being able to exert an independent rule within a given geographic territory Part 2: Questions In Questioning Sociology, Hird and Pavlich identify three key sociological approaches. Identify and explain each of these approaches using examples from the text. (1 mark for identifying each approach accurately; 1 mark for appropriate use of examples) In Questioning Sociology, the three key sociological approaches are subjective troubles, imagining the social and critical sociology. Focus on subjective troubles involves looking at our interactions with others and how these interactions create meanings that shape our views of the world and in turn, how we act. Subjective troubles approach challenges the idea that each of us is a stable or essential individual that remains the same always and forever static. Instead, this approach emphasises that how we see ourselves, as a student, are produced based on our th interactions and social context. For example, if a 13 century serf was to listen to our present day conversation between my friend and I, he or she would likely not understand the meanings used by us to communicate effortlessly with one another. The identity of a serf is the creature of a very different social world, belonging to a way of being that was shaped by an entirely different social context. Imagining the social approach typically explains wide social structures by referring to other social structures, not to individual characteristics. In this approach, the collective whole is explained through the component (social) grouping and such groups, in turn, serve to explain why individuals act the way they do. For example, Ben Johnson’s personal drug abuse problems were looked within the wider social history of Olympic Games to reflect on the powerful social pressures that Johnson faced when deciding to take steroids. Critical sociologists seek to understand the injustices of given context with an underline objective of finding effective ways of bring about incremental or revolutionary social change. This approach has to do with understanding why? For example, why are there more aboriginal youth in prison and how can we change that? The main focus is making right the wrongs. It involves looking at the c
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