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Sociology Midterm 2.docx

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Bickis Heidi

1. In class, I outlined four key questions that sociologists might ask when studying culture. Using an example, identify and explain 2 of these 4 questions. (1 mark for each explanation and 1 mark for each link to example). When studying culture, one key question that sociologists might ask is “can culture be for resistance or social change?” Hip hop is an example of that in which spoke against oppression, racism and poverty. The lyrics were rebellious and thought provoking. It highlighted the problems and the experiences that the blacks were going through. By creating awareness, hip hop was able to bring social change. Another question that a sociologist may ask is: What kinds of ideas and meanings are created intrude culture? And if meanings challenge the dominant norm or do they reproduce them? Ironically, Hip hop was also involved in hegemony. It reproduced oppression and racism within the black community. Black women were sexually objectified which caused the degrading of black women and reinforced gender issues. 2. What does Annette Burfoot mean by “a culture produced from the margins”? (2 marks for the definition; 2 marks for the example (i.e. quality, relevance and link to definition)) Annette Burfoot refers to the production of culture in a social location that is farthest away from the site of political control or the ideological center. For example, in a case of hip hop, poor urban black kids from streets began a form of musical ballad that combined chanting, singing and lecturing in a street like dialect familiar to their specific lifestyles and experiences. They intentionally wore unhemmed, baggy torn jeans which contradicted the designer jeans couture. The songs had rebellious lyrics that spoke about oppression, poverty and discrimination. A culture from the margins criticized the white dominant culture and also ended up creating social change. 3. Identify and explain 2 of the main differences between old and new media. (2 marks for explanation of each difference; 2 marks for relevance and quality of example(s)) The two main differences have to do with who the message is presented to and how. Old media presumes a large, scattered and heterogeneous audience that can’t give immediate feedback. It sends out on standardized message for the audience therefore creating a common experienced. The second difference is the technology used to deliver the message. Old media tends to share the same type of technologies such as TV, radio or newspaper. New media is directed at smaller, more specialized audiences (niche audiences) that can give immediate feedback with tools like twitter. The line between producers and consumers is not clearly defined in new media. It is also more user driven content. New media is not bound to use certain type of technologies; you can get your message through twitter, Facebook, blogs, YouTube, WikiLeaks or various news apps. An Example of old media would be watching “The National with Peter Mansbridge” at 11 pm. The show is meant for all Canadians to watch with no way of giving instant feedback. An example of new media would be hearing about the Rob Ford on twitter and then tweeting out my opinion about the issue instantly. I am able to read into it whenever I like, I don’t have to wait till Peter Mansbridge mentions it 11 pm. 4. What are the three approaches to studying media that Daniel Downes identifies? (3 marks for explanation of each approach; 1 mark for quality and relevance of example) Three approaches for studying media are media effects, institution of media and the media landscape. Media effects refers to the influence it has on its audience and this approach questions to what extent should the government control the content featured. For example, studies have shown that video game violence and internet pornography has negative effect on the youth, yet it is readily available to everyone. Institution of media approach asks how the media operates. What are the internal and external influences that help determine the information disseminated and the tone the media takes on issues? It also raises the question of biases within the media. For example, CanWest has a monopoly in the 1990’s and it alienated journalists by spiking columns that disagreed with the political view of the owners. The third approach is media landscape whi
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