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SOC100 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Thomas Kuhn, Social Reproduction, Hidden Curriculum

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Stephen Speake
Study Guide

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Norms – societal expectations of behavior. Behaviors that comply with the norm are
Micro level – interactions between individuals; Macro level – broader social patterns.
Max Weber (1864-1920), one of the founders of the study of society, termed the
stratification of opportunities that different individuals are born into, such as different
economic classes determining ability to afford post-secondary education, life chances.
C. Wright Mills (1916-1962) defined sociology as the intersection of biography and
history, and the sociological imagination as the ability to perceive the connections
between individual experiences and larger sociocultural forces.
Auguste Compte (1798-1857) first suggested the use of empirical research in the
social sciences. The ‘sociological toolkit’ of today is empirical research, theories, and
critical thinking.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) is recognized as one of the founders of sociology, and
the functionalist perspective, which attempts to explain and predict social patterns on a
macro level. He termed anomie the mass feeling of normlessness, which results in
erratic behavior on the part of individuals.
Karl Marx (1818-1883) is credited as one of the founders of the conflict perspective,
another macro level perspective, which looks at imbalances of power in society, which
Marx believed to be a result of economic inequality. Weber, another conflict theorist,
believed that the source of social inequality is ideological. The conflict perspective also
teaches praxis, the responsibility of scholars to educate oppressed people so that they
are better able to improve their situation. An additional conflict perspective, focused on
social imbalances based on gender, is the Feminist perspective, founded by Harriet
Martineau (1802-1876), which actively tries to correct social, political, and economic
inequalities experienced by women, in addition to the study of those inequalities.
George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) and Herbert Blumer (1900-1987) founded the
symbolic interactionist perspective, which is micro level, and focusses on an
individual’s relationships with significant others (family members, friends) and the
generalized other, which is their sense of how others perceive their behavior in terms of
social norms and expectations.
The Post-Modern perspective includes the skeptical perspective, which posits that
life is meaningless chaos, the affirmative perspective, which suggests that macro level
approaches no longer apply in modern society and the local and specific is the only
possible area of study, and the post-structuralist perspective, founded by Michel
Foucault, which studies the relationship between knowledge and power through elite
and marginalized discourses.

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Concept – an abstract idea expressed as a word or phrase
Variable – a categorical concept that refers to changeable properties of people or things
Deductive reasoning starts with theories and follows a top-down approach from theory
to research.
Inductive reasoning starts with data and follows a bottom-up approach from data to
Reliability – the consistency of a measurement, whether two calculations result in the
same value.
Validity – the extent to which a measurement can be applied outside of the research
Triangulation – the use of multiple data-gathering techniques within one study.
Random assignment - the random distribution of participants between control and
experimental groups.
Random selection – the random acquisition of research participants, such as in a
Content analysis – a secondary analysis of content or messages contained in media.
Discourse analysis – the critical analysis of the way that language conveys social
constructions and social relations.
Historical analysis – the examination of historical data
Ethnography – fieldwork to describe everyday behavior in natural settings
Convergent design – when qualitative and quantitative methods are both used in the
same study
Mass media – communications that target large audiences.
YouTube is considered a ‘disruptive force’ in mass media because it distributes and
popularizes both commercial media and challenges to commercial media.
Tomi T. Ahonen is an expert on the monetary structure of mass media and states that
mobile phones are now the most pervasive technology on the planet.
Marshal McLuhan claimed that each new technological invention or medium
fundamentally changes the way that society experiences life.
The structuralism perspective states that the manifest function of the media is provide
people with current communications and information. The latent function of the media
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