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University of Alberta
Bryan Sluggett

EXAM PREP 5-6 key threads per chapter that connect to eachother Format: april 14 at 2 pm 33.3% 2 hours long( 60 mc and 10 t/f) Only the second half of the course Chapter 4,7,8,9,10 plus additional readings Exam prep sheet on website*** -know the names of the theorists, know the main concepts. Repeat of some first half theorists KEY COURSE IDEAS • Objective/subjective • Deviance dance • Social typing • Social control • Moral entrepreneurs • Power OBJECTIVE-SUBJECTIVE Objective: presence of a specific trait define deviance. Trying to identify why deviance occurs or the causes of it. Factors that lead to deviance issue. Not as concerned with the definition of deviance. Subjective: socially-constructed dominant moral codes define deviance. Connects directly to deviance dance in who defines what deviance is. Ie) causes of youth crime, binge drinking=objective Moral panics about anorexia=subjective Scientific standards for ideal body=objective claim it is truth of the body and we can categorize Causes of and treatments for mental illness=objective. Causes are always objective Influence on the structure of media ownership on content=subjective What modified bodies tell us about society=subjective Social standards for the ideal body=subjective SOCIAL TYPING What is the process of social typing? -certain set of people (ME) saying this certain person is deviant Three step process: 1. description (label) 2. Evaluation (label attached to person or behaviour) ie) eugenics movement: who were people that were socially typed as deviant? mentally handicapped, immigrants(racial hierarchy)labeled under social typing 3. Prescription(the treatment or judgement or how you will control it):treated or judged based on that label -what is the difference between sane and insane person? -traditional typology of religion -examples: witch trials and eugenics. • Social typing in religion. Church major denomination from sect/cult which are socially typed as deviant because of isolation and crazy or not fully functional. SOCIAL CONTROL Prescription that intervenes on social problem Forms of social control: 1. Formal vs Informal Formal (institutions and laws that formally attempt to control behaviour)vs. Informal (irving Goffman everyday life. Every day interactions where people’s behaviour is controlled by social aspects like ridicule) Ie) witch hunts were formalized in law. They were persecuted in courts. 2. Retroactive vs preventative Retroactive: something happened and now we don’t want it to happen again. Preventative: making sure it doesn’t happen at all. Ie) Obesity 3. Self control (Fouccault) vs. Regulation of others -surveilling self in extremely scientific way in terms of broader norms=self control -regulation of others: controlling others -controlled through anti-cult groups -Medicalization of “fat” bodies THE DEVIANCE DANCE One fundamental truth of all deviance issues: a lot of different viewpoints, debates, and resistance. Focuses on different moral entrepreneurs. The dance is between these people trying to socially type these different issues. Presents good reality of what issues look like in real world. Issues are always contested by different forms of intervention Scientists, media, religious groups, politicians are all moral entrepreneurs. Also parents Ie) Some examples of deviance dance: pro ana movement vs. scientific media approach. Scientific approach is very clear: very dangerous disease. Pro-ana websites resist that movement and they try and redefine the issue by saying they can exist and live their lives like that. Contest, debate or struggle between the two groups. Ie) cult vs anti-cult movement:bought plots of land and had small communes of people. People were concerned that their money was being stolen, kids were being beaten etc. cults ask insiders to give posessions and often they are very rich. Anti cult movement resists the question of it ebing religious freedom. All religious groups have religious freedom. Takes a lot to shut down cults because they are religious. Law enforcement can only intervene when the cult is criminal. Sometimes parents in anti cult movement would hire guys to go in and kidnap their children and deprogram them from the cult. Involved in media and promoting potentially dangerous. Counter-cult movement: different then anti-cult. Based on fundamentalist understanding of religion and rejects all non fundamentalist understandings. See all other forms of religion as deviant compared to their own. Our specific denomination is true and all of the others are not real or are going to hell. WITCH TRIALS Informal event that became formalized in the law. PRESCIENTIFIC EXPLANATIONS OF DEVIANCE The devil made me do it The world is seen as one with no coincidences (if something bad happens it must be demonic). These trials started when religion was the strongest moral entrepreneur. Had a non-scientific definition of the witch. They saw the witches as demonic. Nothing is seen as unintended or without consequence. No such thing as coincidences. They wanted exmplanation for everything from floods to crops not doing well. DUALISM Very clear dualistic approach to deviance. No grey area or deviance dance. Good people and bad people. That is it. Very clear moral viewpoint about right and wrong. Anything else is deviant and explained by demonic behaviour. 2 Pathways to deviance: 1. Temptation: the devil does tempting. Ie)extramarital affair. One or the other was tempted through the devil. Wasn’t just their choice. The devil is always tempting you and your faith. If you fall into temptation you are not living good Christian life 2. Possession:devil himself has taken over your body. Explanation of why the act was committed and a justification of why. THE WITCH HUNT 1400-1700 Dates roughly correspond to last major 300 years in which religion was major dominant moral entrepreneur. Science starts to replace it because it was practical. Witchcraft is a belief that exists in virtually every society. Before 1000, church canon law held it illegal to believe in witches. Interesting part, why did that witch hunt grow at that particular point in time. It was always on canon law and there was a rapid rise in persecution Key point: the church did not treat witch craft as part of a conspiracy theory against the for
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