February 26, 2014
Ref Works: can put things into files and there is an option for creating a bibliography for you
Citation: 5 academic sources. Don’t have to direct quote from each of them (paraphrase is
-Better integration of sources=higher grade.
-Rely on academic references for information. Don’t need to do any research yourself.
Media: any form of communication that targets a mass audience
Traditional: print, radio, cinema, TV (one way: someone is depicting media to you, not you back
to them. No reciprocation)
Emerging (Social Media 2.0): email, twitter, facebook etc.
Why Media Matters: The Impact of Media
One of the core pedagogical (educational) forces in contemporary society. Teaches us norms
values, who is deviant and who is not.
Defines social problems and shapes public debates ie) Raves. We immediately associate
ecstasy with raves because the media has made it to be like this.
Identifies and highlights problems
Changes peoples’ behaviours and ideas. Depictions of sexuality changes our attitudes
Globally, media is highly concentrated in a few key corporations. Provincial papers are all
owned by the same huge companies. Investigative journalism is a dying bread so more and
more we’re getting the same stories country wide. It’s cost effective and now they send it to 100
people. It limits voices though which is not a good thing. No diversity. Very concentrated and
barely a free market.
The Three C’s: TEST QUESTION
Convergence: multiple forms of media. online, tv show, news agencies, video game
development. Sell and tell across different formats
Conglomeration: merging of media companies. All owned by the same companies. Canada is
worse for this than in the states. States still has local papers with private stories
Concentration: small number of owners.
“Medium is the message”: we think of media and content or what is produced but he reverses it
so the medium that carries the message has unique social effects.
Each medium carries its own unique social effects. He’s looking at the historical switch and
there has been a huge sweep. Ie) Gutenburg Printing Press 1453. Example of a medium that
transformed society. What are some effects of this on society?
-Allowed for quicker production
-More people can see it
-Sense of a shared reproduced text
-Higher availability of texts
-higher educated society is not possible without the printing press because materials are so
limited that only the most wealthy had access to the materials.
Can see that the medium itself is what really matters! Ex. Printing press=literate society
We focus on the obvious(content) but miss the major structural transformation. Ex. Neon lights as form of medium: why is it a medium? Catches attention, advertises for
business, changes our interactions with spaces in society or how a city is built. So..medium has
causal effect essentially
New Social Media
If the medium is the message, what is the medium of social media 2.0? how is social media
different from traditional?
-Connected to the network society. Really quick and really instant
-User friendly. Traditional was created by professionals and made for professionals and these
new 2.0’s are for everyone of every age.
-Anyone can post or present ideas and not necessarily present themselves. You have to
manage your online identity.
-Mobile: can go anywhere
Studying The Media
-Similar to more objectivist deviance scholars. Interested in how media effects
-Concerned with how deviance issues get framed. So this is what deviance is mostly concerned
Effects of media messages on individuals’ thoughts, feeligns and behaviours
Subtle advertising (Mad Men and Canadian Club Whiskey example)
Media Violence: Does exposure to media violence increase aggression in the real world?
Research Methods?two approaches
-correlational study: looking at relationship between variables. Trying to say there is a
relationship between violence in media and in real world.
-experimental (causation): lab setting, be exposed to image and then assess
Critical Approaches: Media Framing
Framing: the overall way that an issue is depicted in the media. Think of frame as camera lens.
A lot of stuff going on. If you zoom in and take a picture you are framing something. Only seeing
one part of a bigger picture. You’re always making decisions. Different from bias. We
fundamentally always have to make decisions. There is no way of giving EVERY single opinion.
(Canada’s medal count)
Related to larger narratives that help the audience situate the story (eg. Canada is here to win,
Framing: a way of understanding a story,
Ben Johnson and the attack of the Hyphen
Ben Johnson won medal in 1988. Beat American in 100m race. Then exposed for doping and
media said it was because he was Jamaican-canadian. He was “stripped” of his citizenship
through the media basically. Racialization is a huge issue in this.
Jamie Bulger Case From early 1990’s and from the UK. Surveillance image of a small child holding a larger childs
hand. Hours later the older boy took Jamie outside and murdered him. UK then started putting
surveillance cameras everywhere and this erupted as a policy throughout the world. Important:
media can frame issue and create awareness
Media Frames of Ethnic Minorities
5 ways of minorities being depicted in media:
-As Invisible: ethnic minorities are not present in media. Not considered the normative citizen
or the person being sold to.
-As Stereotypes: terrorist, jewish “money grabber”, honey boo-boo (white trash), Asian
person=martial artist, black person=criminal or violent
How are these related to deviancy? Perception from media frames how we understand people
in the real world. Ie)police killing innocent black child who was unarmed
-As social Problems: rave vs social problems. “the black candle” the Chinese opiate users
were accused for interracial sex. social problems read through from black people. Ex. Bush not
allowing murderers with life sentences to have weekend passes but Dukakis did. Black guy,
while out on weekend pass, repeatedly stabbed a couple and raped the woman. With this in the
media it creates a social problem for being afraid of black people. Creates racial division.
-As adornments: “the noble savage”
Jean-Jaques Rousseau: “the noble savage is an individual living in a ‘pure state of nature’—
gentle wise uncorrupted by the vices of civilization”-1775
Reading ethnic groups through adornment says that they’re really not a part of society or are not
fully modern. They are outside of it.
-As white-washed: It’s clear the ethnicity of the person should not be white but we put
someone in the movie that is a white person. The audience will understand the position better
because the audience is majority white. Ex. White people painting themselves to be black to be
featured in a film.
February, 28, 2014
Social Media: New Norms and Expectations
Conan Example: you can admit it, you can buy one or two or ten items for yourself. It gets said
over and over again so obviously it is a standardized message across the country.
Ex. Crime and fire
Content analysis: type of quantitative research. Attempts to count the number of themes that are
actually done. A way of analyzing or counting the data trends. It’s how we understand big
Media Frames of Femininity
Four Key Definitions
Ritualization of subordination:
Media Frames of Masculinity
More than 80 % of frames of masculinity are negative: villain, aggressor, pervert
Social Media 2.0: Exposure as a New Form
Cannot be understood as a privacy invasion People are increasingly exposing their private life in ways they never did before. This is in ways
that older generations will never understand.
Many people, in fact, seem to enjoy exposing themselves (or at least versions) to the public.
Social Media is multiple things at once for people, communication; relationship; commercial
product; surveillance device and so on. How it is commercialized relates to privacy issues. How
does facebook make money? By advertising. The more details they can know, the more details
they have to provide personalized ads to you.
Ex. Riot in Vancouver. Used twitter and facebook to try and catch and capture those who
wrecked things or stole things
From intimate, close tied communities to the “society of strangers” (“privacy” changes). Sex and
intimacy is the big one and you should be shielded from outside lookers but social media breaks
down and blurs these public/private lines.
Capturing, Storing and Sharing Images
We’re talking about more than just a photo. Once something is online there is the potential for it
to be online there forever
Beyond predictable space/time
Some potential future use that is unknown.
Documentation of lives in digital form
Question: What are the risks and benefits of this new form of digital capture.
New risks and Dangers: Star Wars Kids
New risks that mundane or private activities might be leaked to the rest of the world. Not
necessarily our own putting up of things but other people can post things as well.
Captured forever, imprinting that image in a popoular culture (or within ones community)
Example: star wars kid
New Ethical Questions
What is acceptable for public consumption? What should and should not be posted.
Ie) David after dentist-over 119 million views.
New Forms of Celebrity
Lonely Girl 15: A woman who was hired to act out life but everything was fake when people
really thought it was real.
On a smaller scale, at least among their followers, people can be mini celebrities on facebook,
tumblr, twitter and so on.
Changes the conventional norms of what is acceptable and not acceptable for public
Since the 80’s when video recorder hit the market, people have made personal sex tapes.
Not just celebrities making sex tapes-also regular people posting homemade porn tapes
Many people also voluntarily post nude photos of themselves on photo sharing sites.
Changing idea of what is normal and what is changing.
Exposure and New Social Media
Social media is playful and pleasurable. Ie) people dieting disclose exactly what they are doing Rather than privacy invasion, think of this in economic terms as a form of exchange. In
exchange for community and being on these platforms they give the product of intimate detail
with other people.,
March 5, 2014
Hans Meegrum: got put in jail for selling paintings to Jewish people. Thought he was stealing
painting and giving thre whole lot to Jewish people. Turns out he was duping them by painting
replicas and selling them. He thought he would be a hero. Art fraud is the number two loss of
money behind the number one, drugs.
Fakes and Forgeries:
Fakes: works made to resemble an existing piece. Forgery: passed off as original works by
known artists. Why is faking deviant?
-Changing function of art (art is only worth what people will pay for it). What people will pay for
art has exploded in the 20 century.
-changing conventions of the art world.
Question of Originality
-If you’re going to sell art it has to be unique and original in order to have value.
Ex. Michael Angelo: produced all kinds of fakes that he passed off. He was reproducing.
Rembrant routinely signed paintings that were painted by his students. They would bargain for
what would be painted for what dollar amount so often times portions of big pieces were done
by known artists (ie. The face of one angel). Painting of George Washington went form 3300
dollars to over half a million dollars just because people saw worth in it.
-Our notions of originality are historically situated
-michael angelo used to be desirable to fake.
-masters used to work out of studio, many people people worked on an artwork
-contemporary notion of unique creative genius.
-failed artist:not much respect in artistic world. So his reason for faking was to get back at the
-many things we have looked at in galleries are fakes but the thing is, is that we don’t know
which ones they are.
Elmyr de Hory
-remarkable painter but he also had a scam with colleague. Paint masterpieces, fly around
western countries with the painting and the customs agents would ask them if they have
anything to declare, they would open it and say HOLY SMOKES it’s the real thing. Pay 30000 for the duty at customs and now they had government issued proof of it being real. They had a
providence (documents that surround work of art). The documents make the piece way more
valuable. De Hory’s works are now collected and seen as masterpieces. His fakes are now
faked by others because they are so saught after!!
-Really crazy dude. Ate excrement and masturbated 14-15 times a day. Over 100 000 fakes
were sold of his work. In Hawaii alone they were selling 30-40 fakes a day. Dali didn’t even care.
He liked that people were in love with faking his work. He even signed forty blank canvases for
people to paint their own work and have his signature on it.
John Myatt and John Drewe
-Myatt is the painter and was a remarkable artist.
-John Drewe was the mastermind behind these two. He faked documents and identities. He
could pass himself off as anything. He tried to become part of the art world in the beginning. He
made donations to galleries of artworks (20 000 dollars worth) so they would let him hang
around in the archives or where the documentations of where th artwork was held. He used the
access to create thousands of fake providences. So he would tell john myatt to create
something that looked like a rembrant and Drewe would create fantasy history about the
painting. He would insert his documentations into the master books of documentations. He was
really a genius!!! He even established himself a private authentication firm. SO now no one
really knows what is real and what is not.
Extent of the Problem
-“of the 700 authentic works painted by John Baptiste Camille Corot, 8000 of them are in the
-“fully 60% of what I examined was not what it was said to be (Hoving).
-70-90 %pf de Hory is around galleries today as real authentic paintings.
-Money. And it was not with the masterpieces but it was with sussing out which artists were
about to be the “next big thing”.
-Contempt or Revenge: a lot of these people had no success in their artistic careers so this was
their way to get back at the art world.
-Contributing Factor: low likelihood of getting caught. If you have the skill set and a good ability
to bullshit you will get away with it quite easily.
-Robert K Wittman was one of the only FBI investigators in finding fraudulent art.
-The public loves stories about art so when they find a piece that has been lost for 30 years it is
BIG news. There is no police training in finding art that is fraud.
Detecting Fakes and Forgeries
-Chemical analysis on paints
-Errors in historical style and content. Statuthte of Chinese soldier and someone 100 years later
realizes that armour wasn’t around in the 12 century. Painting of Adam and Eve covered by fig
leaves. They didn’t do this. Like flaws in movies. Theft (Illicit Artefacts or Antiquities)
-history of looting. Trying to return works of art to their original sources.
-sacred aritfacts, first nations, all have pressure to give back due to ethnicity.
-now done by local opportunists (very poor people) they end up getting a fraction of these costs.
-Now governed by UN convention on trade and ownership of cultural property.
-Smash and grab: from galleries, churches, and museums.
-Damaging art can happen when restoring.
This goes back to feminists who destroyed works of art in America.
Mona lisa is probably the most vandalised work.
MARCH 7, 2014
BODY IN CONTROL
APPEARANCE AND DEVIANCE
• Identity: some people don’t want to be normal. some people might want to hide their look
or bodies but it’s something that you can’t really control. Whether you like it or not you
are being judged.
• Culture and history (example. Tanning) Tanning used to be considered ugly. It used to
mean that the whiter your skin was the better you were, and if you were tan it meant you
had a field or labour type job. SO now why is tanning considered good? Going on
vacation and leisure activity which shows status.
• Relationships and social interaction: assocuiated with symbolic interaction of space.
How you look impacts how people interact with you. Think of authority figures like police
officers. Someone in a uniform is much more authoritative then someone who is not.
• Mental Illness and disease:certain bodies are bad or certain values are risky. Ie) obesity
as too large or anorexia as too thin. Explicit connection betwee illness chapter and body
PARADOX OF APPEARANCE
• Appearance is a major social determinate in life experience, but much of it is out of our
control. There is all of these ideals of what the “right” image is. If you try and meet them
it is impossible. There are biological limits or social customs we will never be able to
meet. Everyone has certain things that are never ideal.
• We can never meet the ideal
• Different ideals are often in conflict( eg. Being healthy and being beautiful) ie) anorexia,
more think=more attractive but at the same time they are less healthy. Or for men, doing
lots of weight training and risky behaviour. Could be unhealthy.
TYPES OF PHYSICALAPPEARANCE
• Voluntary appearance: result of choice
-eg. Makeup, clothes; tattoos
• Involuntary appearance: limited/no choice
-eg. Height; visible disabilities • Blurred boundaries over time and place: now we have more surgery options. Ie) breast
augmentation that used to be involuntary for health and is now about beauty. Or weight
lifting for men who enhance beyond their biology. Ie) steroids in sport.
THE BODY PROJECT
• Developed by Shilling
• Increasingly in our society, our body is tied to our self worth and social object. Our body
has no become a project for manipulating and changing to make ourselves more
• No matter how much we like to think about it, people are constantly evaluating you so
we want to project the right image
• Thinking back to Goffman, we are on the front stage so we need to manage it
• Backstage: the lazy “in house” you
• Examples of body projects: braces (straightening teeth), tattooing, stomach staple
surgery(changes the function of your body because you can’t eat as much), dieting,
WHAT DO BODIES TELL US?
• Objective vs. Subjective
• Objectively: can tell us the characteristics of a person and who they are. Ie) tattooing.
Do biological report on people who like to get tattoos and those who don’t. tattooing
used to be associated with criminal but now it is completely up to the person and
everyone almost has one. Attempts to associate or identify a profile with a certain type of
• Subjective side: focuses more on the body as a text that gets written onto by society
and culture. Examples of our culture, media and science images. Time palce and
situation that we live in. interaction between the self and society. Focuses on the “ideal”
body in relationship to the self. Interested in sociological depiction of the body.
NOTEWORTHY BODY PROJECTS
• A. Body modification or redesigning
-eg. Tattoos, piercings
-Illustrations of changes over time. Tattoos from criminal to just a personal thing.
• Body size/weight (adapting)
-Pervasive in medicine, media, education, commercial industry, daily interaction
• Always a sense that our bodies could be better.
WHERE DOES THE IDEAL BODY SIZE/WEIGHT COME FROM
• What is the ideal body? Image in your own mind
• Scientific standards
• Social standards
• Some people might take standards very seriously, others might be aware but not care as
much. It all depends on who you are really. Some become so severe that it becomes a
mental health problem.
• Sociologically how do we study people like this? How do we know how common
-surveys or scientific studies.
THE “IDEAL” BODY:SCIENTIFIC STANDARDS
• Based on health risks (harm)
• Eg. Body mass index
- -18.5= “underweight”
- 18.5-24.9=ideal - 25-29.9= overweight
- 30 += “obese”
• The food we are eating is more sugary and more artificial. Physical activity has declined.
• How many people are overweight or obese then?
-worldwide: 1.4 billion adults
-Canada: 67% of men, 54% of adult women, 32% of children
• Are we overreacting to this? BMI measure includes a lot of people in overweight
category who don’t necessarily have health risks.
• How many people are underweight? About 2% of adults and children in Canada.
THE IMPOSSIBLE BODY
• Trying to counter sexualisation of young girls. Sexualisation relates to body because
young girls will believe the media. It changes the demographic shift
NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS OF “TOO FAT”
• Surveys reveal stereotypes and dislike
-adults, children, teachers, nurses
• Female media bodies have become thinner
• Male media bodies have become more muscular, yet lean.
• Stigmatization of fat bodies is happening in our culture. Everyone who is not paper thin
is considered to be fat. Tv shows “girls”. Main actress is almost considered grotesque
and doesn’t even have that big of a body. Average bodies are have fat shaming
TV CHARACTERS VS REAL BODIES
• Obese females almost no representation
• Male images in magazines: represented with ideal bodies. Ie) the size of GI Joes has
increased over time.(extremely muscular). Presents extremely distorted image of bodies.
March 10, 2014
BODY, IDENTITYAND KNOWLEDGE
• Body tells us insight into a person’s identity: strong, lazy, sexy, and so on.
• “too fat” too fat can kill
• “too thin”:media shows a deceptively thin body which may not even be realistic
• Our definition of overweight is extremely limited.
• Moral Entrepreneurs: media and scientists
SOCIAL CONTROL OF “TOO FAT”
• Media: lose weight, fast!
• Commercial Industry: pills, powders
• Medicalization (def: defining something as illness and treating as mental
problem):prescriptions or surgery.
• Governments: “fat tax”(taxing more sugary products), tax deductions
• Communities: recreational facilities
• Resistance against those labels (e.g., fat acceptance)
• Body as Knowledge: obesity as a major public health risk
• Body as Identity: obesity as stigma (bad or negative label)
• Resistance to stigma and expertise
• Contradiction makes sense… • Body as identity or body as a code(picking out pieces of body ie. Finger print. Something
that tells us who you are.) this has happened with obesity. People are reacting to the
knowledge that people don’t feel like it represents who they are.
CESAR LOMBROSO AND “ATAVISTIC” BORN CRIMINALS
• First real attempt at defining criminals scientifically.
• Evolutionary throwback: criminals are a sub species. Lower on the evolutionary totem
• Can identify through genetic testing, we must look at them based on physical features.
• He would grab photos from prisons and compare to see if there was a commonality.
• Body would provide insight to persons true identity. He thought it was an either/ or
• Tied to eugenics: genetic distinctions between people in the population and obviously
people or criminals fall into a weak genetic distinction that needs to be eliminated.
• Precursor to neuroscience. Connecting brain images to certain identities
• Yakuza: Japanese criminal gang. Famous for tattoos. Tattoos associated with criminal
HOW IS TRUTH ABOUT IDENTITY PRODUCED?
• This si a problem for many in security and surveillance situations, including:
• You were supposed to confess your sins
• Testimony swears on bible to confess the truth
• This was what torture was about. We tortured because they were not telling the truth and
we needed that truth. “beat the truth” out of them (INQUISITION) in the witch trials
• Guantomona Bay: people being held illegally and tortured to confess truth
• Abu Ghraib and Torture: he was a torture victim
MODERN FORM OF CONFESSION
• Truth about the body (as identity)
• False eye witness accounts. Highly unreliable.
• Many institutions need to know who you are and what potential risks you pose. Any time
that there is a mistake, there is a problem. Records are more true than reality.
THE PROBLEM WITH TESTIMONY
• Testimony is seen as unreliable
• People could be lying or deceiving or biased
• Avoid questions (right to not self-incriminate)
• “I don’t recall” Alberta Gonzales
• This goes on all the time in government committees. Classic form of defence. We
wont torture people to get at the truth, and we can’t trust them so we have shifted
to focusing on the body as a source of info.
FROM PERSON TO CODED BODIES • DISCIPLINE: person is seen as a whole, body and soul, to be shaped and produced
• Coded Bodies: bits of biological information that don’t require narrative or
knowledge of the person. People can lie so we don’t care about the story or
identity. We just care about what we extract from the person to prove who they are
• Discipline is going back to Foucoult: the panoptican power=total visibility. Ie) teacher
looking at the students. The point is to discipline so that people become better.
• Examples of coded body: drug testing(like a true false. Either you did or you didn’t),
finger printing. With drug testing sometimes we accuse without finding the back story.
Allergy medicine=failing drug test=not playing hockey.
BODY AS A SOURCE OF TRUTH
• As stories and narractives-confessions- have declined in importance, see in rise in
biological truth of the body
• Increasingly, biological data is seen as providing access to one’s true self.
• The face is becoming key source of ID through biometric capacities.
• Ie) say war breaks out, refugees crossing the border, all they want to do is link you to the
system, not about your story.
• Biometrics: looking at biological body as metrics being divided and related to identity. Ie)
eye scan or face recognition.
• Form it takes takes the body as the source. Its not about your true identity, its about your
OBESITY: RISK AND IDENTITY
• Risk of obesity: knowledge at a distance
• Knowledge is removed from its lived context.
• Identity: takes place in a lived context, where people have to deal with obesity as identity
and social stigma. People labeled over weight become stigmatized.
• Many overweight people resist scientific knowledge based on the body as code.
• Policy Solution: obesity research must include identity, social interaction reality.
• Ex. HIV AIDS and stigma. Until today it was highly stigmatized. Making it such a problem
was a problem. MARCH 12, 2014
• Some ideas: people are not functioning or have problem. Sometimes noticeable and
sometime not. There is an expert knowledge behind all mental illness that have a criteria
in order to diagnose. We are trying to appreciate the definition of mental illness in this
• The institution and the way we deal with it changes. In the past we ignored them and
did not define them and as we became more aware we gave a title to things with
• High consensus and low consensus mental illnesses: high consensus is basically
something that society agrees upon as being harmful.ie) anoexia. Everyone agrees
with this fact. Or schizophrenia. Doesn’t have very good claims for NOT being a mental
illness. This is a gradient. Something that is less consensus is something like
insomnia. Are we medicalizing a social problem? People now just might have too
much light, too much stress, or worry more than ever even though our world is better
than it ever has been. ADD would also be a low consensus.
WHY TAKE A SOCIOLOGICALAPPROACH TO MENTAL ILLNESS?
• Patterns of behaviour are socially determined (eg. Poor) people in a poor environment
are more stressed and stress is a huge factor in mental health problems
• Definitions change over time. The history of mental illness is diverse. Something that is
normal today is something that we have socially constructed from decisions. We are
• Social control(institutionalization; stigma; medicalization)
WHAT IS A MENTAL ILLNESS?
• Alterations in thinking, mood, behaviour associated with impairment.
• This definition would be most associated with the subjective or objective?
• Mental illness is the feared, stigmatized, and statistically unusual. Sometimes all of this
really harms the mentally ill and pushes them away from the services they may need
because they may feel rejected.
• These two definition are radically different. BE AWARE
• Mental illness has been taken out of social, cultural, and moral context, viewed only in
terms of the disease model. Is a moral issue, is a political issue.
• European experience
• Based on demonic possession. Explains all behaviour within society because in
premodern societies they thought that nothing was a coincidence. Everything was
based on good and evil and there is a pure and straight moral code. They did
exercises or burned the witches because they were a threat that needed to be rid of.
• Started to emerge in Europe in the middle ages.
• At this point people thought they were sick or ill. They were warehousing these people
to get them off the streets. Many changes were happening like industrialization and
urbanization which brought social problems that societies had to deal with like massive
unemployment, drug addiction, cheating, various moral/immoral activity. Lots of problem
people were seen as able to unfit the new social context so they were thrown in
madhouses. • A husband who was no longer interested in his wife would drop her off at a mad house to
get rid of her. It was people with mental illness as well as people who didn’t fit with
• Horrible living conditions
• Scientific and medical approach to mental illness,
• They wanted to treat and rehabilitate these people.
• The techniques were barbaric. Ie) lobotomy and electric shock therapy.
• It shows that they were trying and it was an emerging science. They didn’t have
pharmaceuticals or an idea of the brain chemistry. We only have this now because we
have grown and got the information that we needed to proceed safely.
• At this point this was seen as logical and scientific.
• Makes us reflect on what we’re doing today to see if people from a 100 years from now
will look at us the same way. The redefinitions always see the last generation as
• Deinstitutionalization began in the 1960’s
• A lot of awareness of framing these problems through social justice. Race gender,
womens movements, rights movememnts
• Treatment within communities rather than institutions (eg. Drugs, council)
• Once people were checked into institutions was that ocne they were checked in, they
were only a mental patient. They were not tested to see if they were normal in any way.
Just assumed they were ill.
• Double Edged Sword: clear net positives that have led to things like destigmatization or
release of people who didn’t need it but it has also had negative consequences that
we’re dealing with today.
• ‘ideal family” (functionalism)
• Homelessness:25-50% of the homeless have mental disorders.
• Neoliberal approach to this problem. It is an approach to government. Compare two as
contrast: it comes after social welfare model(wide safety net that takes care of
vulnerable populations and reintroduce them). Based on leze faire approach. Decline in
government intervention or safety net for social problems. For mental illness we
have taken away resources and we haven’t put enough back in to take the pressure off
• Deinstitutionalization was based on the idea that “all families were good families”
but yet they weren’t. all of a sudden we had a huge issue of now they are mentally
ill and homeless. An idea of freedom turned into unintended consequence that no
one had forseen
• Big Pharma: companies have massive entrepreneurial presence.
• Major entrepreneur interested in medicalizing illness and offering treatment. BIG
• Health or enhancement? (what is normal?)
• Shyness: is this a health problem(being shy) or are we trying to force people to fit into
our society and it makes them “tick”. Might not be a health problem but we can enhance
• The way we define normal in constantly changing just like shyness maybe being an
issue or illness. “fixing impairment” DSM HISTORY
• Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders Is the phsychiatric “bible”
• Provides legitimacy to treat a problem in medical terms
• Sets out criteria to diagnose and treat mental diseases : once it is in dsm you can get it
approved and insurance to cover the illness because it can be proven
• It is a historical document
• Example: homosexuality 1973
• Each country has the ability to define what is normal and what is not normal.
• DSM graph: why we have had a rise in disease. We have gone from 60-over 300
WHY IS THE DSM CONTINUING TO EXPAND?
• Increased sensitivity and expanded treatment
• Over diagnosis
• We turn it into a medical problem because it’s a good way of dealing with it.
PROS OF EXPANDED MENTAL HEALTH COVERAGE
• For many of the more serious mental illnesses there is strong consensus (eg.
• New rights and recognition of serious problems (PTSD). The recognition and status of
the trauma has given the people who suffer a way out
• Provides medical legitimacy (very important for insurance and access). Parents
join groups to learn more about the disease and people share stories. It’s a community
that gets built around diseases to better understand.
• More intense surveillance has led to recognition of more subtle illnesses (such as
CONS OF EXPANDED MENTAL HEALTH COVERAGE
• Is the medical model the best approach for dealing with the problem? (ex. shyness)
• Pharmaceutical industry (*big money): too big of an industry for people to find a cure.
Huge job loss. Huge economy hit
• May not be scientific (homosexuality)
• Ever changing definitions of “medical”
• Increasing focus on minor issues being drugged (example:sleep disorders)
MARCH 14, 2014
-Make a heading for methods: how you arrived at your argument. Explain the process and
decisions you make. Why did you pick those articles? So many options, why this one?
-Focus on making your case (rather than worrying about alternatives). Don’t go too into the
counter arguments. make your case first and just go for it. What are the limits of your
-Don’t reinvent the wheel (you should be citing other ideas and arguments). If someone has a
good argument, use it and cite it. Key is: putting an argument that strings things together
enough to make sense.
-good papers are the ones that are aware of the limits of their arguments.
JOAN BUSFIELD 1996 “MEN, WOMEN, & MADNESS”
• “Mental disorder stands in a difficult, precarious position between bodily illness and
social deviance, and there has been ongoing struggle between various professionals, social theorists and others as to where its boundaries should be set and whether it can,
or should be demarcated from its neighbors. “
• Busfield: “mental disorder is a culturally and socially relative category whose precise
boundaries and meanings vary over time and place and are highly contested.”1996
• Mental disorders are real, but that reality is culturally mediated.
STRESS AND ENVIRONMENT
• PTSD and how it expands to other trauma (like sexual abuse)
• Wider recognition of the relation between stress and social
• But stress does not CAUSE mental disorders (it is a contributing factor)
ON BEING SANE IN INSANE PLACES 1973: DAVID ROSENHAN: ARTICLE
• What is the sociological term that we use for mental hospital or places?
-Total Institution: comes to totally define that persons life.
• This article gets at everyone in a mental institution being mentally ill. Can professionals
in the institution recognize sanity and insanity within their own institutions? 8
researchers self-diagnose as schizophrenic. They didn’t choose a border line disorder.
Only one of the eight was identified as really being schizophrenic. Looking at the hospital
notes there was no sense that those people stood out as normal because everyone in
that place was mentally ill. Ie) person and biographical histories. Every history got read
through the framework of causing the schizophrenia. It’s all about the interpretation.
• This kind of explains the deinstitutionalization movement. So much is seen as mentally ill
that there is no normal, they have no autonomy. It’s a total framework as soon as you
set foot in the building. Sad.
• Difficult to say that we have tests in our medical field that actually work to diagnose all of
• 35/118 other patients recognized right away that they weren’t insane. The patients had
a better intuition about what insanity and sanity are. This explains why we don’t
institutionalize people very much anymore.
• Dangers/negatives/and problem with institutionalization vs
• Related to the panoptican thing. The people are objects to be studied. Our lecture
about bodies: we look at people as codes. These scientists are looking at these people
as objects to study, not subjects with feelings. Things become more and more
• “when others are watching they treat the patients better” for example when there are
visitors the doctors treat the patients a lot better.
• Mental illness is complex. It doesn’t mean that they’re crazy or dangerous. They might
just have difficulty with self control or behaviour.
DIAGNOSIS AS ETHICAL NEGOTIATION (ADHD)
• Public debate: are we overdiagnosing behaviours as disorders? Maybe
because we have a more strict definition of normal or don’t want them in classrooms
• But there is another side of kids that are hyperactive or have a lack of control with
aggression and what happens is it is a key problem within schools. Kids have trouble
in school, teachers ID student as different than the other kids, and then there are
parents who are concerned with their children. They will have trouble integrating into
a society that expects you to be okay with normal life things. Then doctors (psyc.
Doctor, psychiatrists). Its like a negotiation. the drug companies play a role and
they do push for it because it is business “drug kids”. One way they do it is
advertising, mostly to aprents, because if they raise concern in parents and parents
think their child might have adhd then they are more likely to get a diagnosis. “trouble in school” can be associated with adhd so yes it gets overdiagnosed. Another thing
drug companies do is pharmaceutical reps: they pitch their drugs to doctors. The
reps are very good at exemplifying the drug to doctors, and doctors are more likely to
prescribe the drug.
March 17, 2014
THE PROBLEM OF CONFORMITY
THE DEVIANCE BIAS
• Bad thing are associated with people who are outside the norms or reject norms
of society. People who cannot conform.
• BUT over-conformity is also a problem. Sometimes people are too attached to the
norms. Ex. Idealized bodies and eating disorders. Thin body might be physically
impossible to actually get to. Attaching yourself to idealized body as a norm can become
dangerous. It is deviant. if everyone followed idealized bodies we would have a lot more
health risks than overweight people do.
• Underage drinking: more the norm than not the norm. negativity that we can’t really
• Too highly attached to a radical set of religious beliefs can lead to violence.
• Obedience: Following orders from an authority figure
• Ie. Nazi regime in world war II. How did the citizens of Germany get caught up in this
genocide? They were following orders or being obedient.
• My Lai Massacre (William Calley) Military orders are to be followed. You do not break
• Stanley Milgram’s Shock Experiment: administered shock to person if the person in
the lab coat told them to even if they heard someone screaming on the other end when
the shock was administered.
• Stanford Prison Experiment
• Harold Garfinkel and breaking experiments: healthy students went up to old people on
the train and asked for their seat and often people gave it to them.
• In cases where you’re not conformist leads to a community and subculture which
in the end is really a group of conformity. Vicious cycle. Ie) punk rockers rejecting
society but then there becomes a community and identity where people get drawn in.
CONFORMITY VS OBEDIENCE
• Conformity is essentially being or acting normal. The act of matching attitudes,
beliefs, and behaviours to group norms ( “being “normal”).
• Obedience: following rules specifically from authority figure or attaching and
identifying broadly. SOCIOLOGY AFTER THE HOLOCAUST
• “Civilization now includes death camps and Muselmann among its material and spiritual
• We need accounting for what happened or a reason why it happened. They will say
that we have to account for the fact that a very civilized community produced this
event. Not sufficient to say that they were uncivilized. They were.
MODERNITY AND THE HOLOCAUST
• Zygmunt Bauman
• Thesis: holocaust was a product of modernity rather than a failure of modernity.
• Efficient killing or efficieny of the factory has the very same procedures as the killing of
people had. So it was modern. The state apparatrus was under radical control but it
allowsed them using the processes for evil. Modernity made it possible to carry out
the crimes efficiently on the large scale.
• German sociologist
• Rationalization modern to improve efficiency of an organization
1. Efficiency: through specialization and division of labor. Sets up small tasks for
people to do instead of a whole task. Do a whole bunch at the same time. Become
alienated from the end product. They work on one aspect so they have no idea
how the whole “car” comes together. Same for nazi Germany. Task of killing was
divided into small little tasks that removed people from the bigger picture. Allowed
mass murder. Someone was responsible for the train schedule.
2. Quantification: makes things measurable and allows for comparisons. Makes
things countable. Happening in education. We’re obsessed with accounting for
educational outcomes and the only way for doing this is quantifying it by turning
it into numbers which = tests.
3. Predictability: you know where people are supposed to be and what the end
result should look like. If not rationalized they are less predictable.
4. Control: takes place during hierarchy. Key idea here is rules and key people in
positions of high authority. Rules replace ethical thinking. The ethical things to
do is follow rule. If its good things and doing them efficiently. But in the hands of
someone evil and bad then it can be turned around.
• Anything that defines capitalist society. His concern is decline in ethical society.
Rationalization removes ethical thinking and replaces ethical thinking with rule
• We live in societies that if taken over by evil societies they are set up for
• Over a large scale area. People were murdered on the streets but for the most part they
were moved into camps. It required a massive infrastructure that made it possible to
collect, control, and move people. It allowed people to be removed from killing
because they were only carrying out one task.
• Of people:each person that entered the camps or in contact with authorities was
given a punch card with a whole bunch of features. Jewish were a large scale group
that were murdered, homosexuals, minority ethnical, gypsies, poles, all given different
treatments depending on what they were
• This was the dehumanization process. Turning humans into objects.
• People were given camp badges depending on their “catalogue” • The trains were the best way of categorizing. People in nazi regime became
obsessed with little details. Someone was put on just studying train timing from point a to
point b. not really killing but it got the jewish people to the camp to be killed, efficiently.
Making the evnt a normal routine and habitual. It was an extraordinary event in a sense
but the way it worked was turning it into a job. “im just the engineer, im just keeping the
trains running” specialized tasks masked what was realling going on. They made it
RATIONALITY AND MORAL DISTANCING
• 1. Authority (monopoly on violence). State had monopoly on violence and people
who step out of line suffer the wrath of the state. Think obedience. Nazi took control,
had strict rules and if you didn’t follow you were in trouble as well.
• 2. Routinization (make the work routine):turning the job of mass genocide into
• 3. Dehumanization (less than human): for a long period of time in Germany here was
propaganda campaign of jewish people being less than human. Without this it would not
have worked. Once they were defined non-human they were objects
• These three things made the whole thing possible.
MORAL DISTANCE:KILLING AS NORMAL
1. Mediating the action of killing (eg. Socialization and division of labour). Many people in
Nazi Germany were not “pulling the trigger”, the just had a small part in it.
2. Making the victims invisible and at a distance (eg. Naked and starving). Many people
were barely alive by the time they were killed. At a distance is much easier to kill
someone with a gun than a knife. The further you remove yourself physically, the easier
it becomes. Pushing a button is easy. You don’t see anything. But killing with bare
hands is a whole new level.
3. Making the humanity of the person disappear (eg. Vermin)
*basically we’re talking about neutralization techniques
INDIVIDUALAS PURE EVIL (PSYCHOPATH)
• These are the people who commit violent acts in our societies
• “under the conditions of tyranny it is far easier to act than to think”
• She studied in totalitarian states and government. She referred to them as radical evil.
Because the state controls everything.
EICHMANN IN JERUSALEM;A REPORT ON THE BANALITY OF EVIL (1963)
• Became huge globalized event. Allowed us to say that this guy is evil.
• Claim: Eichmann was not actually a psychopath, he was a regular guy who was put in
conditions of evil. This is the banality of evil or where it comes in.
• Eichmann did horribly evil things he was not a monster