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Notes After Midterm.docx

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University of Alberta
Bryan Sluggett

February 26, 2014 Ref Works: can put things into files and there is an option for creating a bibliography for you Citation: 5 academic sources. Don’t have to direct quote from each of them (paraphrase is better) -Better integration of sources=higher grade. -Rely on academic references for information. Don’t need to do any research yourself. MEDIA Media: any form of communication that targets a mass audience Traditional: print, radio, cinema, TV (one way: someone is depicting media to you, not you back to them. No reciprocation) Emerging (Social Media 2.0): email, twitter, facebook etc. Why Media Matters: The Impact of Media One of the core pedagogical (educational) forces in contemporary society. Teaches us norms values, who is deviant and who is not. Defines social problems and shapes public debates ie) Raves. We immediately associate ecstasy with raves because the media has made it to be like this. Identifies and highlights problems Changes peoples’ behaviours and ideas. Depictions of sexuality changes our attitudes (potentially) Media Ownership Globally, media is highly concentrated in a few key corporations. Provincial papers are all owned by the same huge companies. Investigative journalism is a dying bread so more and more we’re getting the same stories country wide. It’s cost effective and now they send it to 100 people. It limits voices though which is not a good thing. No diversity. Very concentrated and barely a free market. The Three C’s: TEST QUESTION Convergence: multiple forms of media. online, tv show, news agencies, video game development. Sell and tell across different formats Conglomeration: merging of media companies. All owned by the same companies. Canada is worse for this than in the states. States still has local papers with private stories Concentration: small number of owners. Conan Example Marshall McLuhan “Medium is the message”: we think of media and content or what is produced but he reverses it so the medium that carries the message has unique social effects. Each medium carries its own unique social effects. He’s looking at the historical switch and there has been a huge sweep. Ie) Gutenburg Printing Press 1453. Example of a medium that transformed society. What are some effects of this on society? -Allowed for quicker production -More people can see it -Sense of a shared reproduced text -Higher availability of texts -higher educated society is not possible without the printing press because materials are so limited that only the most wealthy had access to the materials. Can see that the medium itself is what really matters! Ex. Printing press=literate society We focus on the obvious(content) but miss the major structural transformation. Ex. Neon lights as form of medium: why is it a medium? Catches attention, advertises for business, changes our interactions with spaces in society or how a city is built. So..medium has causal effect essentially New Social Media Email Twitter Facebook Instagram If the medium is the message, what is the medium of social media 2.0? how is social media different from traditional? -Connected to the network society. Really quick and really instant -User friendly. Traditional was created by professionals and made for professionals and these new 2.0’s are for everyone of every age. -Anyone can post or present ideas and not necessarily present themselves. You have to manage your online identity. -Mobile: can go anywhere Studying The Media Administrative Approachs -Similar to more objectivist deviance scholars. Interested in how media effects Critical Approaches -Concerned with how deviance issues get framed. So this is what deviance is mostly concerned with. Administrative Approaches Effects of media messages on individuals’ thoughts, feeligns and behaviours Subtle advertising (Mad Men and Canadian Club Whiskey example) Media Violence: Does exposure to media violence increase aggression in the real world? Research Methods?two approaches -correlational study: looking at relationship between variables. Trying to say there is a relationship between violence in media and in real world. -experimental (causation): lab setting, be exposed to image and then assess Critical Approaches: Media Framing Framing: the overall way that an issue is depicted in the media. Think of frame as camera lens. A lot of stuff going on. If you zoom in and take a picture you are framing something. Only seeing one part of a bigger picture. You’re always making decisions. Different from bias. We fundamentally always have to make decisions. There is no way of giving EVERY single opinion. (Canada’s medal count) Related to larger narratives that help the audience situate the story (eg. Canada is here to win, not participate) Framing: a way of understanding a story, Ben Johnson and the attack of the Hyphen Ben Johnson won medal in 1988. Beat American in 100m race. Then exposed for doping and media said it was because he was Jamaican-canadian. He was “stripped” of his citizenship through the media basically. Racialization is a huge issue in this. Jamie Bulger Case From early 1990’s and from the UK. Surveillance image of a small child holding a larger childs hand. Hours later the older boy took Jamie outside and murdered him. UK then started putting surveillance cameras everywhere and this erupted as a policy throughout the world. Important: media can frame issue and create awareness Media Frames of Ethnic Minorities 5 ways of minorities being depicted in media: -As Invisible: ethnic minorities are not present in media. Not considered the normative citizen or the person being sold to. -As Stereotypes: terrorist, jewish “money grabber”, honey boo-boo (white trash), Asian person=martial artist, black person=criminal or violent How are these related to deviancy? Perception from media frames how we understand people in the real world. Ie)police killing innocent black child who was unarmed -As social Problems: rave vs social problems. “the black candle” the Chinese opiate users were accused for interracial sex. social problems read through from black people. Ex. Bush not allowing murderers with life sentences to have weekend passes but Dukakis did. Black guy, while out on weekend pass, repeatedly stabbed a couple and raped the woman. With this in the media it creates a social problem for being afraid of black people. Creates racial division. -As adornments: “the noble savage” Jean-Jaques Rousseau: “the noble savage is an individual living in a ‘pure state of nature’— gentle wise uncorrupted by the vices of civilization”-1775 Reading ethnic groups through adornment says that they’re really not a part of society or are not fully modern. They are outside of it. -As white-washed: It’s clear the ethnicity of the person should not be white but we put someone in the movie that is a white person. The audience will understand the position better because the audience is majority white. Ex. White people painting themselves to be black to be featured in a film. February, 28, 2014 Social Media: New Norms and Expectations Media Ownership Conan Example: you can admit it, you can buy one or two or ten items for yourself. It gets said over and over again so obviously it is a standardized message across the country. Ex. Crime and fire Content analysis: type of quantitative research. Attempts to count the number of themes that are actually done. A way of analyzing or counting the data trends. It’s how we understand big problems. Media Frames of Femininity Four Key Definitions Feminine Touch: Ritualization of subordination: Licensed withdrawal Infantilization Media Frames of Masculinity More than 80 % of frames of masculinity are negative: villain, aggressor, pervert Social Media 2.0: Exposure as a New Form Cannot be understood as a privacy invasion People are increasingly exposing their private life in ways they never did before. This is in ways that older generations will never understand. Many people, in fact, seem to enjoy exposing themselves (or at least versions) to the public. Social Media is multiple things at once for people, communication; relationship; commercial product; surveillance device and so on. How it is commercialized relates to privacy issues. How does facebook make money? By advertising. The more details they can know, the more details they have to provide personalized ads to you. Ex. Riot in Vancouver. Used twitter and facebook to try and catch and capture those who wrecked things or stole things From intimate, close tied communities to the “society of strangers” (“privacy” changes). Sex and intimacy is the big one and you should be shielded from outside lookers but social media breaks down and blurs these public/private lines. Capturing, Storing and Sharing Images We’re talking about more than just a photo. Once something is online there is the potential for it to be online there forever Beyond predictable space/time Some potential future use that is unknown. Documentation of lives in digital form Question: What are the risks and benefits of this new form of digital capture. New risks and Dangers: Star Wars Kids New risks that mundane or private activities might be leaked to the rest of the world. Not necessarily our own putting up of things but other people can post things as well. Captured forever, imprinting that image in a popoular culture (or within ones community) Example: star wars kid New Ethical Questions What is acceptable for public consumption? What should and should not be posted. Ie) David after dentist-over 119 million views. New Forms of Celebrity Lonely Girl 15: A woman who was hired to act out life but everything was fake when people really thought it was real. On a smaller scale, at least among their followers, people can be mini celebrities on facebook, tumblr, twitter and so on. Changes the conventional norms of what is acceptable and not acceptable for public consumption Homemade Porn Since the 80’s when video recorder hit the market, people have made personal sex tapes. Not just celebrities making sex tapes-also regular people posting homemade porn tapes Many people also voluntarily post nude photos of themselves on photo sharing sites. Changing idea of what is normal and what is changing. Exposure and New Social Media Social media is playful and pleasurable. Ie) people dieting disclose exactly what they are doing Rather than privacy invasion, think of this in economic terms as a form of exchange. In exchange for community and being on these platforms they give the product of intimate detail with other people., March 5, 2014 GUEST LECTURE Hans Meegrum: got put in jail for selling paintings to Jewish people. Thought he was stealing painting and giving thre whole lot to Jewish people. Turns out he was duping them by painting replicas and selling them. He thought he would be a hero. Art fraud is the number two loss of money behind the number one, drugs. -Fraud -Theft Vandalism Art Crimes Fakes and Forgeries: Fakes: works made to resemble an existing piece. Forgery: passed off as original works by known artists. Why is faking deviant? -Changing function of art (art is only worth what people will pay for it). What people will pay for art has exploded in the 20 century. -changing conventions of the art world. Question of Originality -If you’re going to sell art it has to be unique and original in order to have value. Ex. Michael Angelo: produced all kinds of fakes that he passed off. He was reproducing. Rembrant routinely signed paintings that were painted by his students. They would bargain for what would be painted for what dollar amount so often times portions of big pieces were done by known artists (ie. The face of one angel). Painting of George Washington went form 3300 dollars to over half a million dollars just because people saw worth in it. -Our notions of originality are historically situated -michael angelo used to be desirable to fake. -masters used to work out of studio, many people people worked on an artwork -contemporary notion of unique creative genius. Tom Keating -failed artist:not much respect in artistic world. So his reason for faking was to get back at the establishment. -many things we have looked at in galleries are fakes but the thing is, is that we don’t know which ones they are. Elmyr de Hory -remarkable painter but he also had a scam with colleague. Paint masterpieces, fly around western countries with the painting and the customs agents would ask them if they have anything to declare, they would open it and say HOLY SMOKES it’s the real thing. Pay 30000 for the duty at customs and now they had government issued proof of it being real. They had a providence (documents that surround work of art). The documents make the piece way more valuable. De Hory’s works are now collected and seen as masterpieces. His fakes are now faked by others because they are so saught after!! S. Dali -Really crazy dude. Ate excrement and masturbated 14-15 times a day. Over 100 000 fakes were sold of his work. In Hawaii alone they were selling 30-40 fakes a day. Dali didn’t even care. He liked that people were in love with faking his work. He even signed forty blank canvases for people to paint their own work and have his signature on it. John Myatt and John Drewe -Myatt is the painter and was a remarkable artist. -John Drewe was the mastermind behind these two. He faked documents and identities. He could pass himself off as anything. He tried to become part of the art world in the beginning. He made donations to galleries of artworks (20 000 dollars worth) so they would let him hang around in the archives or where the documentations of where th artwork was held. He used the access to create thousands of fake providences. So he would tell john myatt to create something that looked like a rembrant and Drewe would create fantasy history about the painting. He would insert his documentations into the master books of documentations. He was really a genius!!! He even established himself a private authentication firm. SO now no one really knows what is real and what is not. Extent of the Problem -“of the 700 authentic works painted by John Baptiste Camille Corot, 8000 of them are in the united states” -“fully 60% of what I examined was not what it was said to be (Hoving). -70-90 %pf de Hory is around galleries today as real authentic paintings. Motivations -Money. And it was not with the masterpieces but it was with sussing out which artists were about to be the “next big thing”. -Contempt or Revenge: a lot of these people had no success in their artistic careers so this was their way to get back at the art world. -Contributing Factor: low likelihood of getting caught. If you have the skill set and a good ability to bullshit you will get away with it quite easily. Policing -Almost non-existent -Robert K Wittman was one of the only FBI investigators in finding fraudulent art. -The public loves stories about art so when they find a piece that has been lost for 30 years it is BIG news. There is no police training in finding art that is fraud. Detecting Fakes and Forgeries -Ratio-Carbon Dating -Chemical analysis on paints -Xrays -Errors in historical style and content. Statuthte of Chinese soldier and someone 100 years later realizes that armour wasn’t around in the 12 century. Painting of Adam and Eve covered by fig leaves. They didn’t do this. Like flaws in movies. Theft (Illicit Artefacts or Antiquities) -antiquities -history of looting. Trying to return works of art to their original sources. -sacred aritfacts, first nations, all have pressure to give back due to ethnicity. -now done by local opportunists (very poor people) they end up getting a fraction of these costs. -Now governed by UN convention on trade and ownership of cultural property. -Smash and grab: from galleries, churches, and museums. -Damaging art can happen when restoring. Vandalism -Mentally Ill -Politically motivated This goes back to feminists who destroyed works of art in America. Mona lisa is probably the most vandalised work. MARCH 7, 2014 BODY IN CONTROL APPEARANCE AND DEVIANCE • Identity: some people don’t want to be normal. some people might want to hide their look or bodies but it’s something that you can’t really control. Whether you like it or not you are being judged. • Culture and history (example. Tanning) Tanning used to be considered ugly. It used to mean that the whiter your skin was the better you were, and if you were tan it meant you had a field or labour type job. SO now why is tanning considered good? Going on vacation and leisure activity which shows status. • Relationships and social interaction: assocuiated with symbolic interaction of space. How you look impacts how people interact with you. Think of authority figures like police officers. Someone in a uniform is much more authoritative then someone who is not. • Mental Illness and disease:certain bodies are bad or certain values are risky. Ie) obesity as too large or anorexia as too thin. Explicit connection betwee illness chapter and body image chapter. PARADOX OF APPEARANCE • Appearance is a major social determinate in life experience, but much of it is out of our control. There is all of these ideals of what the “right” image is. If you try and meet them it is impossible. There are biological limits or social customs we will never be able to meet. Everyone has certain things that are never ideal. • We can never meet the ideal • Different ideals are often in conflict( eg. Being healthy and being beautiful) ie) anorexia, more think=more attractive but at the same time they are less healthy. Or for men, doing lots of weight training and risky behaviour. Could be unhealthy. TYPES OF PHYSICALAPPEARANCE • Voluntary appearance: result of choice -eg. Makeup, clothes; tattoos • Involuntary appearance: limited/no choice -eg. Height; visible disabilities • Blurred boundaries over time and place: now we have more surgery options. Ie) breast augmentation that used to be involuntary for health and is now about beauty. Or weight lifting for men who enhance beyond their biology. Ie) steroids in sport. THE BODY PROJECT • Developed by Shilling • Increasingly in our society, our body is tied to our self worth and social object. Our body has no become a project for manipulating and changing to make ourselves more acceptable. • No matter how much we like to think about it, people are constantly evaluating you so we want to project the right image • Thinking back to Goffman, we are on the front stage so we need to manage it • Backstage: the lazy “in house” you • Examples of body projects: braces (straightening teeth), tattooing, stomach staple surgery(changes the function of your body because you can’t eat as much), dieting, steroids, WHAT DO BODIES TELL US? • Objective vs. Subjective • Objectively: can tell us the characteristics of a person and who they are. Ie) tattooing. Do biological report on people who like to get tattoos and those who don’t. tattooing used to be associated with criminal but now it is completely up to the person and everyone almost has one. Attempts to associate or identify a profile with a certain type of body part. • Subjective side: focuses more on the body as a text that gets written onto by society and culture. Examples of our culture, media and science images. Time palce and situation that we live in. interaction between the self and society. Focuses on the “ideal” body in relationship to the self. Interested in sociological depiction of the body. NOTEWORTHY BODY PROJECTS • A. Body modification or redesigning -eg. Tattoos, piercings -Illustrations of changes over time. Tattoos from criminal to just a personal thing. • Body size/weight (adapting) -Pervasive in medicine, media, education, commercial industry, daily interaction • Always a sense that our bodies could be better. WHERE DOES THE IDEAL BODY SIZE/WEIGHT COME FROM • What is the ideal body? Image in your own mind • Scientific standards • Social standards • Some people might take standards very seriously, others might be aware but not care as much. It all depends on who you are really. Some become so severe that it becomes a mental health problem. • Sociologically how do we study people like this? How do we know how common something is? -surveys or scientific studies. THE “IDEAL” BODY:SCIENTIFIC STANDARDS • Based on health risks (harm) • Eg. Body mass index - -18.5= “underweight” - 18.5-24.9=ideal - 25-29.9= overweight - 30 += “obese” • The food we are eating is more sugary and more artificial. Physical activity has declined. • How many people are overweight or obese then? -worldwide: 1.4 billion adults -Canada: 67% of men, 54% of adult women, 32% of children • Are we overreacting to this? BMI measure includes a lot of people in overweight category who don’t necessarily have health risks. • How many people are underweight? About 2% of adults and children in Canada. THE IMPOSSIBLE BODY • Trying to counter sexualisation of young girls. Sexualisation relates to body because young girls will believe the media. It changes the demographic shift NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS OF “TOO FAT” • Surveys reveal stereotypes and dislike -adults, children, teachers, nurses • Female media bodies have become thinner • Male media bodies have become more muscular, yet lean. • Stigmatization of fat bodies is happening in our culture. Everyone who is not paper thin is considered to be fat. Tv shows “girls”. Main actress is almost considered grotesque and doesn’t even have that big of a body. Average bodies are have fat shaming TV CHARACTERS VS REAL BODIES • Obese females almost no representation • Male images in magazines: represented with ideal bodies. Ie) the size of GI Joes has increased over time.(extremely muscular). Presents extremely distorted image of bodies. March 10, 2014 BODY, IDENTITYAND KNOWLEDGE • Body tells us insight into a person’s identity: strong, lazy, sexy, and so on. • “too fat” too fat can kill • “too thin”:media shows a deceptively thin body which may not even be realistic • Our definition of overweight is extremely limited. • Moral Entrepreneurs: media and scientists SOCIAL CONTROL OF “TOO FAT” • Media: lose weight, fast! • Commercial Industry: pills, powders • Medicalization (def: defining something as illness and treating as mental problem):prescriptions or surgery. • Governments: “fat tax”(taxing more sugary products), tax deductions • Communities: recreational facilities • Resistance against those labels (e.g., fat acceptance) OBESITY • Body as Knowledge: obesity as a major public health risk • Body as Identity: obesity as stigma (bad or negative label) • Resistance to stigma and expertise • Contradiction makes sense… • Body as identity or body as a code(picking out pieces of body ie. Finger print. Something that tells us who you are.) this has happened with obesity. People are reacting to the knowledge that people don’t feel like it represents who they are. CESAR LOMBROSO AND “ATAVISTIC” BORN CRIMINALS • First real attempt at defining criminals scientifically. • Evolutionary throwback: criminals are a sub species. Lower on the evolutionary totem pole • Can identify through genetic testing, we must look at them based on physical features. • He would grab photos from prisons and compare to see if there was a commonality. • Body would provide insight to persons true identity. He thought it was an either/ or category. • Tied to eugenics: genetic distinctions between people in the population and obviously people or criminals fall into a weak genetic distinction that needs to be eliminated. PHRENOLOGY • Precursor to neuroscience. Connecting brain images to certain identities TATTOOS • Yakuza: Japanese criminal gang. Famous for tattoos. Tattoos associated with criminal activity. HOW IS TRUTH ABOUT IDENTITY PRODUCED? • This si a problem for many in security and surveillance situations, including: -police -border agent -doctor -judge -school -corporations -governments CONFESSIONS • You were supposed to confess your sins • Testimony swears on bible to confess the truth • This was what torture was about. We tortured because they were not telling the truth and we needed that truth. “beat the truth” out of them (INQUISITION) in the witch trials • Guantomona Bay: people being held illegally and tortured to confess truth • Abu Ghraib and Torture: he was a torture victim MODERN FORM OF CONFESSION • Truth about the body (as identity) • False eye witness accounts. Highly unreliable. • Many institutions need to know who you are and what potential risks you pose. Any time that there is a mistake, there is a problem. Records are more true than reality. THE PROBLEM WITH TESTIMONY • Testimony is seen as unreliable • People could be lying or deceiving or biased • Avoid questions (right to not self-incriminate) • “I don’t recall” Alberta Gonzales • This goes on all the time in government committees. Classic form of defence. We wont torture people to get at the truth, and we can’t trust them so we have shifted to focusing on the body as a source of info. FROM PERSON TO CODED BODIES • DISCIPLINE: person is seen as a whole, body and soul, to be shaped and produced • Coded Bodies: bits of biological information that don’t require narrative or knowledge of the person. People can lie so we don’t care about the story or identity. We just care about what we extract from the person to prove who they are • Discipline is going back to Foucoult: the panoptican power=total visibility. Ie) teacher looking at the students. The point is to discipline so that people become better. • Examples of coded body: drug testing(like a true false. Either you did or you didn’t), finger printing. With drug testing sometimes we accuse without finding the back story. Allergy medicine=failing drug test=not playing hockey. BODY AS A SOURCE OF TRUTH • As stories and narractives-confessions- have declined in importance, see in rise in biological truth of the body • Increasingly, biological data is seen as providing access to one’s true self. • The face is becoming key source of ID through biometric capacities. • Ie) say war breaks out, refugees crossing the border, all they want to do is link you to the system, not about your story. • Biometrics: looking at biological body as metrics being divided and related to identity. Ie) eye scan or face recognition. BMI • Form it takes takes the body as the source. Its not about your true identity, its about your body. OBESITY: RISK AND IDENTITY • Risk of obesity: knowledge at a distance • Knowledge is removed from its lived context. • Identity: takes place in a lived context, where people have to deal with obesity as identity and social stigma. People labeled over weight become stigmatized. • Many overweight people resist scientific knowledge based on the body as code. • Policy Solution: obesity research must include identity, social interaction reality. • Ex. HIV AIDS and stigma. Until today it was highly stigmatized. Making it such a problem was a problem. MARCH 12, 2014 MENTAL ILLNESS • Some ideas: people are not functioning or have problem. Sometimes noticeable and sometime not. There is an expert knowledge behind all mental illness that have a criteria in order to diagnose. We are trying to appreciate the definition of mental illness in this lecture. • The institution and the way we deal with it changes. In the past we ignored them and did not define them and as we became more aware we gave a title to things with certain symptoms. • High consensus and low consensus mental illnesses: high consensus is basically something that society agrees upon as being anoexia. Everyone agrees with this fact. Or schizophrenia. Doesn’t have very good claims for NOT being a mental illness. This is a gradient. Something that is less consensus is something like insomnia. Are we medicalizing a social problem? People now just might have too much light, too much stress, or worry more than ever even though our world is better than it ever has been. ADD would also be a low consensus. WHY TAKE A SOCIOLOGICALAPPROACH TO MENTAL ILLNESS? • Patterns of behaviour are socially determined (eg. Poor) people in a poor environment are more stressed and stress is a huge factor in mental health problems • Definitions change over time. The history of mental illness is diverse. Something that is normal today is something that we have socially constructed from decisions. We are making choices. • Social control(institutionalization; stigma; medicalization) WHAT IS A MENTAL ILLNESS? • Alterations in thinking, mood, behaviour associated with impairment. • This definition would be most associated with the subjective or objective? • Mental illness is the feared, stigmatized, and statistically unusual. Sometimes all of this really harms the mentally ill and pushes them away from the services they may need because they may feel rejected. • These two definition are radically different. BE AWARE • Mental illness has been taken out of social, cultural, and moral context, viewed only in terms of the disease model. Is a moral issue, is a political issue. PRE-SCIENTIFIC • European experience • Based on demonic possession. Explains all behaviour within society because in premodern societies they thought that nothing was a coincidence. Everything was based on good and evil and there is a pure and straight moral code. They did exercises or burned the witches because they were a threat that needed to be rid of. MADHOUSES • Started to emerge in Europe in the middle ages. • At this point people thought they were sick or ill. They were warehousing these people to get them off the streets. Many changes were happening like industrialization and urbanization which brought social problems that societies had to deal with like massive unemployment, drug addiction, cheating, various moral/immoral activity. Lots of problem people were seen as able to unfit the new social context so they were thrown in madhouses. • A husband who was no longer interested in his wife would drop her off at a mad house to get rid of her. It was people with mental illness as well as people who didn’t fit with society. • Horrible living conditions ASYLUMS • Scientific and medical approach to mental illness, • They wanted to treat and rehabilitate these people. • The techniques were barbaric. Ie) lobotomy and electric shock therapy. • It shows that they were trying and it was an emerging science. They didn’t have pharmaceuticals or an idea of the brain chemistry. We only have this now because we have grown and got the information that we needed to proceed safely. • At this point this was seen as logical and scientific. • Makes us reflect on what we’re doing today to see if people from a 100 years from now will look at us the same way. The redefinitions always see the last generation as barbaric. DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION MOVEMENT • Deinstitutionalization began in the 1960’s • A lot of awareness of framing these problems through social justice. Race gender, womens movements, rights movememnts • Treatment within communities rather than institutions (eg. Drugs, council) • Once people were checked into institutions was that ocne they were checked in, they were only a mental patient. They were not tested to see if they were normal in any way. Just assumed they were ill. • Double Edged Sword: clear net positives that have led to things like destigmatization or release of people who didn’t need it but it has also had negative consequences that we’re dealing with today. • ‘ideal family” (functionalism) • Homelessness:25-50% of the homeless have mental disorders. • Neoliberal approach to this problem. It is an approach to government. Compare two as contrast: it comes after social welfare model(wide safety net that takes care of vulnerable populations and reintroduce them). Based on leze faire approach. Decline in government intervention or safety net for social problems. For mental illness we have taken away resources and we haven’t put enough back in to take the pressure off of families. • Deinstitutionalization was based on the idea that “all families were good families” but yet they weren’t. all of a sudden we had a huge issue of now they are mentally ill and homeless. An idea of freedom turned into unintended consequence that no one had forseen COMMERCIALIZATION • Big Pharma: companies have massive entrepreneurial presence. • Major entrepreneur interested in medicalizing illness and offering treatment. BIG MONEY • Health or enhancement? (what is normal?) • Shyness: is this a health problem(being shy) or are we trying to force people to fit into our society and it makes them “tick”. Might not be a health problem but we can enhance it. • The way we define normal in constantly changing just like shyness maybe being an issue or illness. “fixing impairment” DSM HISTORY • Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders Is the phsychiatric “bible” • Provides legitimacy to treat a problem in medical terms • Sets out criteria to diagnose and treat mental diseases : once it is in dsm you can get it approved and insurance to cover the illness because it can be proven • It is a historical document • Example: homosexuality 1973 • Each country has the ability to define what is normal and what is not normal. • DSM graph: why we have had a rise in disease. We have gone from 60-over 300 diseases WHY IS THE DSM CONTINUING TO EXPAND? • Increased sensitivity and expanded treatment • Over diagnosis • We turn it into a medical problem because it’s a good way of dealing with it. PROS OF EXPANDED MENTAL HEALTH COVERAGE • For many of the more serious mental illnesses there is strong consensus (eg. Schizophrenia) • New rights and recognition of serious problems (PTSD). The recognition and status of the trauma has given the people who suffer a way out • Provides medical legitimacy (very important for insurance and access). Parents join groups to learn more about the disease and people share stories. It’s a community that gets built around diseases to better understand. • More intense surveillance has led to recognition of more subtle illnesses (such as autism) CONS OF EXPANDED MENTAL HEALTH COVERAGE • Is the medical model the best approach for dealing with the problem? (ex. shyness) • Pharmaceutical industry (*big money): too big of an industry for people to find a cure. Huge job loss. Huge economy hit • May not be scientific (homosexuality) • Ever changing definitions of “medical” • Increasing focus on minor issues being drugged (example:sleep disorders) MARCH 14, 2014 PAPER -Make a heading for methods: how you arrived at your argument. Explain the process and decisions you make. Why did you pick those articles? So many options, why this one? -Focus on making your case (rather than worrying about alternatives). Don’t go too into the counter arguments. make your case first and just go for it. What are the limits of your statement? -Don’t reinvent the wheel (you should be citing other ideas and arguments). If someone has a good argument, use it and cite it. Key is: putting an argument that strings things together enough to make sense. -good papers are the ones that are aware of the limits of their arguments. JOAN BUSFIELD 1996 “MEN, WOMEN, & MADNESS” • “Mental disorder stands in a difficult, precarious position between bodily illness and social deviance, and there has been ongoing struggle between various professionals, social theorists and others as to where its boundaries should be set and whether it can, or should be demarcated from its neighbors. “ FAKE DISORDERS • Busfield: “mental disorder is a culturally and socially relative category whose precise boundaries and meanings vary over time and place and are highly contested.”1996 • Mental disorders are real, but that reality is culturally mediated. STRESS AND ENVIRONMENT • PTSD and how it expands to other trauma (like sexual abuse) • Wider recognition of the relation between stress and social • But stress does not CAUSE mental disorders (it is a contributing factor) ON BEING SANE IN INSANE PLACES 1973: DAVID ROSENHAN: ARTICLE • What is the sociological term that we use for mental hospital or places? -Total Institution: comes to totally define that persons life. • This article gets at everyone in a mental institution being mentally ill. Can professionals in the institution recognize sanity and insanity within their own institutions? 8 researchers self-diagnose as schizophrenic. They didn’t choose a border line disorder. Only one of the eight was identified as really being schizophrenic. Looking at the hospital notes there was no sense that those people stood out as normal because everyone in that place was mentally ill. Ie) person and biographical histories. Every history got read through the framework of causing the schizophrenia. It’s all about the interpretation. • This kind of explains the deinstitutionalization movement. So much is seen as mentally ill that there is no normal, they have no autonomy. It’s a total framework as soon as you set foot in the building. Sad. • Difficult to say that we have tests in our medical field that actually work to diagnose all of these disorders. • 35/118 other patients recognized right away that they weren’t insane. The patients had a better intuition about what insanity and sanity are. This explains why we don’t institutionalize people very much anymore. • Dangers/negatives/and problem with institutionalization vs • Related to the panoptican thing. The people are objects to be studied. Our lecture about bodies: we look at people as codes. These scientists are looking at these people as objects to study, not subjects with feelings. Things become more and more depersonalized. • “when others are watching they treat the patients better” for example when there are visitors the doctors treat the patients a lot better. • Mental illness is complex. It doesn’t mean that they’re crazy or dangerous. They might just have difficulty with self control or behaviour. DIAGNOSIS AS ETHICAL NEGOTIATION (ADHD) • Public debate: are we overdiagnosing behaviours as disorders? Maybe because we have a more strict definition of normal or don’t want them in classrooms • But there is another side of kids that are hyperactive or have a lack of control with aggression and what happens is it is a key problem within schools. Kids have trouble in school, teachers ID student as different than the other kids, and then there are parents who are concerned with their children. They will have trouble integrating into a society that expects you to be okay with normal life things. Then doctors (psyc. Doctor, psychiatrists). Its like a negotiation. the drug companies play a role and they do push for it because it is business “drug kids”. One way they do it is advertising, mostly to aprents, because if they raise concern in parents and parents think their child might have adhd then they are more likely to get a diagnosis. “trouble in school” can be associated with adhd so yes it gets overdiagnosed. Another thing drug companies do is pharmaceutical reps: they pitch their drugs to doctors. The reps are very good at exemplifying the drug to doctors, and doctors are more likely to prescribe the drug. March 17, 2014 THE PROBLEM OF CONFORMITY THE DEVIANCE BIAS • Bad thing are associated with people who are outside the norms or reject norms of society. People who cannot conform. • BUT over-conformity is also a problem. Sometimes people are too attached to the norms. Ex. Idealized bodies and eating disorders. Thin body might be physically impossible to actually get to. Attaching yourself to idealized body as a norm can become dangerous. It is deviant. if everyone followed idealized bodies we would have a lot more health risks than overweight people do. • Underage drinking: more the norm than not the norm. negativity that we can’t really explain • Too highly attached to a radical set of religious beliefs can lead to violence. OBEDIENCE • Obedience: Following orders from an authority figure • Ie. Nazi regime in world war II. How did the citizens of Germany get caught up in this genocide? They were following orders or being obedient. • My Lai Massacre (William Calley) Military orders are to be followed. You do not break them. • Stanley Milgram’s Shock Experiment: administered shock to person if the person in the lab coat told them to even if they heard someone screaming on the other end when the shock was administered. • Stanford Prison Experiment • Harold Garfinkel and breaking experiments: healthy students went up to old people on the train and asked for their seat and often people gave it to them. NON-CONFORMITYAS CONFORMITY • In cases where you’re not conformist leads to a community and subculture which in the end is really a group of conformity. Vicious cycle. Ie) punk rockers rejecting society but then there becomes a community and identity where people get drawn in. CONFORMITY VS OBEDIENCE • Conformity is essentially being or acting normal. The act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours to group norms ( “being “normal”). • Obedience: following rules specifically from authority figure or attaching and identifying broadly. SOCIOLOGY AFTER THE HOLOCAUST • “Civilization now includes death camps and Muselmann among its material and spiritual products” • We need accounting for what happened or a reason why it happened. They will say that we have to account for the fact that a very civilized community produced this event. Not sufficient to say that they were uncivilized. They were. MODERNITY AND THE HOLOCAUST • Zygmunt Bauman • Thesis: holocaust was a product of modernity rather than a failure of modernity. • Efficient killing or efficieny of the factory has the very same procedures as the killing of people had. So it was modern. The state apparatrus was under radical control but it allowsed them using the processes for evil. Modernity made it possible to carry out the crimes efficiently on the large scale. ***MAX WEBER*** • German sociologist • Rationalization modern to improve efficiency of an organization 1. Efficiency: through specialization and division of labor. Sets up small tasks for people to do instead of a whole task. Do a whole bunch at the same time. Become alienated from the end product. They work on one aspect so they have no idea how the whole “car” comes together. Same for nazi Germany. Task of killing was divided into small little tasks that removed people from the bigger picture. Allowed mass murder. Someone was responsible for the train schedule. 2. Quantification: makes things measurable and allows for comparisons. Makes things countable. Happening in education. We’re obsessed with accounting for educational outcomes and the only way for doing this is quantifying it by turning it into numbers which = tests. 3. Predictability: you know where people are supposed to be and what the end result should look like. If not rationalized they are less predictable. 4. Control: takes place during hierarchy. Key idea here is rules and key people in positions of high authority. Rules replace ethical thinking. The ethical things to do is follow rule. If its good things and doing them efficiently. But in the hands of someone evil and bad then it can be turned around. • Anything that defines capitalist society. His concern is decline in ethical society. Rationalization removes ethical thinking and replaces ethical thinking with rule following. • We live in societies that if taken over by evil societies they are set up for totalitarian control. EFFICIENT GENOCIDE • Over a large scale area. People were murdered on the streets but for the most part they were moved into camps. It required a massive infrastructure that made it possible to collect, control, and move people. It allowed people to be removed from killing because they were only carrying out one task. CATEGORIZING • Of people:each person that entered the camps or in contact with authorities was given a punch card with a whole bunch of features. Jewish were a large scale group that were murdered, homosexuals, minority ethnical, gypsies, poles, all given different treatments depending on what they were • This was the dehumanization process. Turning humans into objects. • People were given camp badges depending on their “catalogue” • The trains were the best way of categorizing. People in nazi regime became obsessed with little details. Someone was put on just studying train timing from point a to point b. not really killing but it got the jewish people to the camp to be killed, efficiently. Making the evnt a normal routine and habitual. It was an extraordinary event in a sense but the way it worked was turning it into a job. “im just the engineer, im just keeping the trains running” specialized tasks masked what was realling going on. They made it possible. RATIONALITY AND MORAL DISTANCING • 1. Authority (monopoly on violence). State had monopoly on violence and people who step out of line suffer the wrath of the state. Think obedience. Nazi took control, had strict rules and if you didn’t follow you were in trouble as well. • 2. Routinization (make the work routine):turning the job of mass genocide into everyday life. • 3. Dehumanization (less than human): for a long period of time in Germany here was propaganda campaign of jewish people being less than human. Without this it would not have worked. Once they were defined non-human they were objects • These three things made the whole thing possible. MORAL DISTANCE:KILLING AS NORMAL 1. Mediating the action of killing (eg. Socialization and division of labour). Many people in Nazi Germany were not “pulling the trigger”, the just had a small part in it. 2. Making the victims invisible and at a distance (eg. Naked and starving). Many people were barely alive by the time they were killed. At a distance is much easier to kill someone with a gun than a knife. The further you remove yourself physically, the easier it becomes. Pushing a button is easy. You don’t see anything. But killing with bare hands is a whole new level. 3. Making the humanity of the person disappear (eg. Vermin) *basically we’re talking about neutralization techniques INDIVIDUALAS PURE EVIL (PSYCHOPATH) • These are the people who commit violent acts in our societies HANNAH ARENDT • “under the conditions of tyranny it is far easier to act than to think” • She studied in totalitarian states and government. She referred to them as radical evil. Because the state controls everything. EICHMANN IN JERUSALEM;A REPORT ON THE BANALITY OF EVIL (1963) • Became huge globalized event. Allowed us to say that this guy is evil. • Claim: Eichmann was not actually a psychopath, he was a regular guy who was put in conditions of evil. This is the banality of evil or where it comes in. • Eichmann did horribly evil things he was not a monster
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