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Midterm

SOC241TermExam2Review.pdf

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC241
Professor
Leslie Hayduk

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Sociology 241: Midterm #2 review Midterm: Topics 4, 5, 6 B&B: 45 to 58, 71 to 76, 117 to 128, 143 Hayduk: Chp 2 ­ 27 to 53, Chp 3 ­ 1 to 15 Extra: Face Observations 3, Paul S. Handout Lecture Review ● Facial Expression: attractiveness is affected by facial expression; ○ Two kind of neural connections: inhibiting and activating. ○ If certain characteristics are present cells become active. ● Computers can be trained to recognize facial expression, has trouble with negative facial expressions (with the exception of anger), looks at pixels to do this ● Language limits our access to self (can’t explain everything) ● There is a circular flow of ideas/charge in brain ● Study: infants were better at recognizing faces of their own race + female, siblings rate people similarly. ● Study: took ordinary picture of face, made two new pictures: transformed with either high frequency information or low frequency information ○ had people match photos: either set of real faces, high frequency, or low frequency. ● Sensible World = Social World, constructed world, idea of Illusions: don’t necessarily see world correctly, even when world is correctly seen, it’s still constructed. ○ Time is constructed, expectations are constructed in time. ● Seeing is seeing as. Can’t view things neutrally. Therefore we are always biased. Can’t remove biases completely, can just switch from one to another. ● Paul S.: contra lateral control, two systems, ○ Information seen only by his left visual field goes to the right brain and vise versa ■ can get separate information into Paul’s half brains ○ Non­verbal part of brain (right brain) still has emotional/personal capabilities, sense of time, self­awareness ■ When asked what job he would like via screen, non verbal part answer with race car driver, when asked verbally, verbal side said draftsmen Textbook Review ● People are Social animals and Cultural animals ● “culture is a better way of being social.” ● Nature and Culture Influence each other ● Important features of culture: Shared ideas, culture as a system, culture as praxis, and meaningful information ● Duplex mind: idea that the mind has two processing systems ● self claims/sustains place in cultural system ● Self has three parts: self­knowledge, Interpersonal self/public self, and agent self/executive function ● Independent self­construal: self concept which emphasizes what makes the self different from others ● Dependent self­construal: self concept which emphasizes what connects the self to other people ● Social Roles: self has to gain social acceptance ● Two steps of choosing: discarding/eliminating/narrowing down options, then careful comparison ● Influences on choice: Risk Aversion, Temporal discounting, The Certainty Effect, Keeping options open ● Prevention of choice: status quo bias, omission bias, Anticipated regret, ● Reactance Theory: idea that people are distressed by loss of freedom or options and seek to reclaim or reassert them. ● Entity Theorists: those that believe that traits are fixed, stable thing, and thus people should not be expected to change ● Increment theorists: those who believe that traits are subject to change and improvement ● Learned helplessness: belief that one’s action will not bring about desired outcomes, leading one to give up and quit trying. ● Self­determination theory: the theory that people need to feel at least some degree of autonomy and internal motivation ● Panic button effect: a reduction in stress or suffering due to a belief that one can escape or control the situation ● Capacity to delay gratification: ability to make immediate sacrifices for later rewards Differences  and Similarities 1 Places of agreement ● pg. 50 culture and nature shape each other. ● pg. 55 neurology “does” the automatic system of learning, thinking, choosing, etc. ● pg. 73 self begins with bodies ● pg. 73 self is constructed Differences Language gives us limited acces to understand our self ● B & B: when you understand how your brain distinguishes faces you understand self ● Lec: this is only a partial understanding 1  See document on eclass Differences Topic & page number Baumeister & Bushman Lectures Pg. 53 Paul S. and few people doing studies like this actually increasingly common, not Gazzaniga new anymore Neurology used as an alternative for mind, Actions and what we do are self, conscious, experiences etc. connected to neurons, but the use of mind should probably be neural/perception → mind → replaced with neurons. B&B's
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