Sociology 241: Midterm #2 review
Midterm: Topics 4, 5, 6
B&B: 45 to 58, 71 to 76, 117 to 128, 143
Hayduk: Chp 2 27 to 53, Chp 3 1 to 15
Extra: Face Observations 3, Paul S. Handout
● Facial Expression: attractiveness is affected by facial expression;
○ Two kind of neural connections: inhibiting and activating.
○ If certain characteristics are present cells become active.
● Computers can be trained to recognize facial expression, has trouble with negative facial
expressions (with the exception of anger), looks at pixels to do this
● Language limits our access to self (can’t explain everything)
● There is a circular flow of ideas/charge in brain
● Study: infants were better at recognizing faces of their own race + female, siblings rate people
● Study: took ordinary picture of face, made two new pictures: transformed with either high
frequency information or low frequency information
○ had people match photos: either set of real faces, high frequency, or low frequency.
● Sensible World = Social World, constructed world, idea of Illusions: don’t necessarily see
world correctly, even when world is correctly seen, it’s still constructed.
○ Time is constructed, expectations are constructed in time.
● Seeing is seeing as. Can’t view things neutrally. Therefore we are always biased. Can’t remove
biases completely, can just switch from one to another.
● Paul S.: contra lateral control, two systems,
○ Information seen only by his left visual field goes to the right brain and vise versa
■ can get separate information into Paul’s half brains
○ Nonverbal part of brain (right brain) still has emotional/personal capabilities, sense of
■ When asked what job he would like via screen, non verbal part answer with
race car driver, when asked verbally, verbal side said draftsmen
● People are Social animals and Cultural animals
● “culture is a better way of being social.”
● Nature and Culture Influence each other
● Important features of culture: Shared ideas, culture as a system, culture as praxis, and
● Duplex mind: idea that the mind has two processing systems ● self claims/sustains place in cultural system
● Self has three parts: selfknowledge, Interpersonal self/public self, and agent self/executive
● Independent selfconstrual: self concept which emphasizes what makes the self different from
● Dependent selfconstrual: self concept which emphasizes what connects the self to other people
● Social Roles: self has to gain social acceptance
● Two steps of choosing: discarding/eliminating/narrowing down options, then careful comparison
● Influences on choice: Risk Aversion, Temporal discounting, The Certainty Effect, Keeping
● Prevention of choice: status quo bias, omission bias, Anticipated regret,
● Reactance Theory: idea that people are distressed by loss of freedom or options and seek to
reclaim or reassert them.
● Entity Theorists: those that believe that traits are fixed, stable thing, and thus people should not
be expected to change
● Increment theorists: those who believe that traits are subject to change and improvement
● Learned helplessness: belief that one’s action will not bring about desired outcomes, leading one
to give up and quit trying.
● Selfdetermination theory: the theory that people need to feel at least some degree of autonomy
and internal motivation
● Panic button effect: a reduction in stress or suffering due to a belief that one can escape or
control the situation
● Capacity to delay gratification: ability to make immediate sacrifices for later rewards
Differences and Similarities 1
Places of agreement
● pg. 50 culture and nature shape each other.
● pg. 55 neurology “does” the automatic system of learning, thinking, choosing, etc.
● pg. 73 self begins with bodies
● pg. 73 self is constructed
Language gives us limited acces to understand our self
● B & B: when you understand how your brain distinguishes faces you understand self
● Lec: this is only a partial understanding
See document on eclass Differences
Topic & page number Baumeister & Bushman Lectures
Pg. 53 Paul S. and few people doing studies like this actually increasingly common, not
Gazzaniga new anymore
Neurology used as an alternative for mind, Actions and what we do are
self, conscious, experiences etc. connected to neurons, but the use
of mind should probably be
neural/perception → mind → replaced with neurons. B&B's