SOC 241: Final Review 1
● choices are made within a neurological framework (Paul S.)
● Attributions are the causal explanations people give for their own and others’ behaviours and for
events in general
○ survival = social
○ “The theory of natural selection itself predicts that the manifest behavior of different
individuals will vary ... Furthermore, it deductively implies that an individual’s behavior
will often appear far from “optimal,” as, for example, when optimality is defined without
respect to the individual’s social environment.” (Cosmides and Tooby)
● Emotions = adaptations to recurring situations
○ multiple structure in brain, multiple ways to react
○ emotions make planning possible.
Characteristics of Emotions
○ 1. recurrent situation recurrent structure in the environment of evolutionary
adaptiveness (including other people) we are currently adapted to past environments
a distalcause type of argument
○ 2. an adaptive problem (some pressure, threat or problem), having better or worse
○ 3. cues that signal the presence of the situation If the cue or cues are there, then I am in
○ 4. algorithms responding to the cues the individual's (organism's) monitors,
transducers, or sensory apparatus.
○ 5. algorithms integrating the set of monitored or/sensory cues, to see if the full set of
relevant cues are present.
○ 6. algorithm of priorities If you are in the situation of: "both hungry and in presence of a
predator" .... do you "Eat" or "Run"?
○ 7. internal communication system ... signal channels (i.e. neurons) to all relevant
mechanisms, or structures that should be activated.
○ 8. algorithms instructing each "mechanism" how to respond
● Zimbardo: imaginings were indistinguishable from reality.
● What causes people’s behaviour?
○ B&B: Fundamental attribution error: a bias to attribute another person’s behaviour to
internal or dispositional causes
○ Zimbardo: Other Fundamental attribution error: a bias to attribute another person’s
behaviour to external causes
○ LEC: avoid the above biases, Behaviour as resulting from external microsituation,
resulting in momentary internal neural flows
● Responsibility = a construct SOC 241: Final Review 2
● Testosterone → what creates variations/changes testosterone
● focus on mind: automatic vs. deliberate system,
● nature and social behaviour are intertwined
● The Self works at claiming/sustaining place in cultural system, morals, etc.
○ Three main parts: Selfknowledge (selfawareness), Interpersonal self/public self, agent
○ Independent selfconstrual: self concept which emphasizes what makes the self different
○ Dependent selfconstrual: self concept which emphasizes what connects the self to other
● Self Esteem
○ looking glass self → learn about self from other
○ tend to change “blame” with success level
○ selfhandicapping: putting obstacles in the way of success
○ overjustification effect: tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish when external
rewards are present
● Influences on choice: Risk Aversion, Temporal discounting, The Certainty Effect, Keeping
● Prevention of choice: status quo bias, omission bias, Anticipated regret,
● Reactance Theory: idea that people are distressed by loss of freedom or options and seek to
reclaim or reassert them.
● Entity Theorists: those that believe that traits are fixed, stable thing, and thus people should not
be expected to change
● Increment theorists: those who believe that traits are subject to change and improvement
● Knowledge structures
○ knowledge structures: organized packets of information that are stored in memory
○ Schemas: knowledge structures that represent substantial information about a concept
(ex. dancing movement rhythm, petition, coordination)
○ Scripts: knowledge structures that contain information about how people/ objects
behave in certain circumstances (ex. restaurant > seated, order, eat, pay, leave)
○ priming, framing (“spinning words”)
○ mental shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood of uncertain events
○ representative heuristic: tendency to judge frequency of event by the extent to which it