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Comprehensive Notes for Lecture 3

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Changes in Canadian Families from 1950 to Present Social reform, waves of immigration, 1950 to present, fertility transition, baby boom, post baby boom trends Late 19 century and early 20 century - Response to high mortality and oppression - Political, religious, health - Age of light, soap and water (new hygiene knowledge) Achievements (origin of paediatrics, social work) - Rights for women in families (right to vote, women’s rights, sharing family property, protection from abusive spouses, before 1960 women could not own their husbands land, amend laws so that a marital resident cannot be kicked out of a house if there is a dispute so cannot be done without the consent of the wife) - Reduction in infant mortality (highest rate in Canada was in the west, reform movements) - Protection of children from exploitation (opening school, have to send children to school so that they are not abused for labour, minimum age for marriage, age of consent laws (protects children from being preyed upon)) - Reinforcement of separate spheres (led to the notion of separate spheres for women and men, 6 day work weeks and wage laws, wages should be high enough for a man so he can support family, but it reinforced the idea that they men were being paid and women were at home not being paid. The home is the domain of women) Immigration: 18 Century - French, English, Irish, Scottish - Quebec, Ontario, Maritimes - Large rural families (something like 15 children) Early 20 Century - British Isles and central and eastern Europe (immigration grows and Canada was a safety valve) - Ontario and west (from central and eastern Europe with a little religious percussion, not high on the social latter and pushed out of their homes) - Chain migration (one family comes and they are able to communicate back to people in their country and tell other people to come into the country, and there is a chain of these families coming into the country, only possible if you have good communication and high rates of literacy) - Rural and urban (more and more immigrants come to urban areas and stay there, not dealing with large farm families anymore) - >400 000 in 1913 alone (one of the biggest immigrant receiving countries in the world. Just before WW1. Canadian government had a guideline of who they wanted to come into Canada. Empty territory they wanted to fill with a “stout wife and a half dozen children” to fill up the west of Canada.) NOT WANTED - Chinese Families 1885: Chinese head tax (had to pay a tax for the amount of people coming into the country, only the men could come in to work on railroads) 1923-1947: Chinese immigration stopped - Black Families Considered undesirable. People who wanted to come in where sent back. - Indian Families Continuous journey requirement (through an immigration requirement, which said that immigrants coming to Canada they have to be part of a continuous journey to Canada, so they had to come straight from Point A to Point B. European families could do this easier, but Indian families could not do a continuous journey.) - Jewish Families Canadian government refused to admit refugees from Hitler (Canada has a bad record of not taking in Jewish refugees especially if it is a family) “None is too many” Today - 1967: changes in immigration act favouring skills and ability over ethnic origin Asia, South America, Africa (huge uptake of these countries) Refugees and family reunification (people who have a creatable fear of persecution, people can come into Canada as family class members being sponsored into the country) Post War Canada - Affluent, economic growth and urbanization (time where things after WWII that we were wealthy) - Government support for families (1950s, the beginnings of a lot of programs that encourage family dynamics and f
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