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Comprehensive Notes for Lecture 7

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Paid Work and Family Life 1. Paid work and gender a. The gender gap in income b. Why do men earn more than women? i. Job concentration ii. Human capital discrepancies iii. Price of motherhood 2. Paid and unpaid work a. The triple shift and the time bind i. Coping strategies 3. Gendered divisions of labour at home Paid Work and Gender Adult full-time employment rate by gender, 1975-2010 - Men 73% were employed in 1975, in 2010 70% were employed - Women jumped from 42% in 1975 to 58% in 2010 o Expansion of post-secondary Adult full-time employment rate by gender and marital status, 1951-1995 - Married women grow from 9.5% in 1951 to 62% in 1995 o Women’s numbers are catching up to men - Men dropped from 84.4% to 72.4% Annual Income by Gender and age, full-time workers, 2006 - Men’s incomes at 57 in the 50-54 age - Women’s incomes at 40 in the 50-54 age range Average hourly wage for men and women employed full-time, by province - Men out earn women as full-time workers o Alberta has the highest income gender gap and hourly wage because of the oil sands but in Alberta woman are making more than any other province o Quebec has the lowest gap between hourly wage and gender Annual Income by type of Family, 2010 - Two parent, two earners ($92,000) - Two parent, one earner ($55,000) - One parent, male earner ($56,000) - One parent, female earner ($39,000) Percentage of families below low-income cut-off by type, 2010 - All families (6%) - Two earners (3%) - One male earner (9%) - One female earner (21%) Why do men earn more than Women? 1. Job market segmentation (segregation) - There are different kinds of jobs, some pay well and have lots of benefits, and some are the opposite. Men and women are not evenly proportioned in these kinds o Horizontal Segregation  Occupation dominated by one gender • 3% of machinists are female and hourly wage is 23$ • 99% of early childhood educator and hourly wage is 14$ o Vertical Segregation  Genders unevenly distributed within occupation • 25% of high school principals are female and get $81,600 • 50% of high school teachers are female and get $51,000 - Most common occupations for men and women: o Men (retail sales, truck driving, retail manager, janitor, farmer, automotive technician) o Women (retail sales, cashier, nurse, office assistant, K-6 teacher, early childhood educator) 2. Human capital discrepancies - Income depends on human capital o Human capital= skills, experience and seniority - Less human capital results from job switching, non-specialized education, time out of workforce 3. Price of motherhood Female non-parents Male parents Female Parents Male non-parents Rate of job change Higher Lower Part-time More common Less common Enter/Exit workforce More frequent Less frequent Lifetime earnings Lower
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