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Comprehensive Notes for Lecture 6

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC271
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Having Children 1. Childbearing as choice 2. Broad trend in parenting 3. Baby shock and public policy 4. Dimensions of parenting and parenthood Childbearing as a Choice- th th 19 -20 century Canada - Fertility becomes part of “calculus of conscious choice” 1. Childbearing is not up to nature or up to God (humans believe they are entitled to control) 2. Reduced childbearing is seen as advantageous 3. Effective birth control is accessible and socially acceptable… fertility transition th (beginning of 20 century) When Birth Control was a Crime- 2 years imprisonment, publish or advertise or use medicine or drug that prevented conception (Section 179 of 1892 Canadian Criminal Code) - 1960: birth control devices legalized for therapeutic rather than contraceptive - 1969: Section 179 repealed Childbearing as Choice- - 1 in 5 Canadian women will not have a child (biologically, some infertile) o Timing o Priorities o Motherhood no longer master status - Childless or childfree Choice to have children - Pat of marriage - Sign of psychological maturity and selflessness - Duty to religion, society and family - Companionship and joy - Romantic notion of parent-child bond Choosing not to have children - Lack of partner - Economically unaffordable - Competition with other life projects - Emotional needs of children - No desire for parent status Broad Trends- Lifetime birthrate per Canadian women - Baby boom in 1961 at 3.9 children per woman, and then declines in numbers till 1.6 in 2011 - More birth control assessable to women Age at birth of first child for Canadian Women - Baby boom was about 23.5 while in 2010 is about 28.2 years old - As age of first birth is higher, there is a policy response to this in Alberta that women who were pregnant, they were considered high risk. High risk age has now been bumped to 40 years old Trends in Childbearing- Later and fewer - Decline in teen childbearing (majority is not planned pregnancy, increase in birth control use) Increasing proportion outside marriage [about 30% of births are to women who are unmarried, in US rates are about 40% of births in a given year to women who are not married, cluster among the lower socioeconomic spectrum as well as the highest part; driven by perception that there is absence of suitable marriage partners] - Single mothers by choice (SMBC) [more women in 30’s or 40’s adopting children, using assistive technologies] Alternatives to old fashion birth- Assisted reproduction - High cost - Diverse range of procedure - Driven by older maternal ages and medical infertility - Low success rates - Relationship of child to bio-parents Adoption - High cost - Diverse forms of adoption - Less secrecy than in past - Relationship of child to bio-parents “Baby Shock” - Arrival of child is eagerly anticipated event with unanticipated consequences Income Expenditures Marital Global life Gender Lifetime Satisfaction satisfaction relations wealth potential Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease More Decreased (during traditional (for women (places childhood) (paid and stress on marriage) unpaid work for men and women) Couples as (new) parents- - Caregiver: earner (similar to traditional marriage, women who is primary caregiver. Paid work will be subordinated with children. Being home at the time when children are done and to spend more time with them. Earner bringing in money and caregiver taking care of the unpaid things) - Manager: helper (management is the person who organizes and delegates who does what, the helper is the one taking them there. Helper is perceived that he or she is pulling their weight, manager perceived that they did most of the work) - Gatekeeper: outsider (gatekeeper protects access and controls access of work that needs to be done, one parent guards the gate for what to do for the children, and the other parent is kept off on the outside) - Equal: equal (shared work for bringing in the money, each party will adapt for the family, egalitarianism) - Alternate: Alternate
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