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JANUARY 9 - What is “family”? What does family mean? - “I’d like to start a family by the time i’m 30” -> family used to describe children, reproduction - “My family comes from Rajasthan” -> family goes backwards in time, marker of continuity from past to present and into the future through reproduction - “I’m looking for a family-friendly place for a vacation this summer” -> family means things that are non-offensive, appropriate for families. Transmits values and morals - “My friends are like family to me.” -> friends offer emotional support, share things, family is a type of connection - “Canada’s immigration policy stresses family reunification.” -> somebody who has a particular relationship with you, restrictive definition, genetic connections or legal ties. Some Approaches To Defining Family: 1. SNAF: Standard North American Family (ideological family) - Male breadwinner married to female homemaker/caregiver with joint children - relationship includes both sexes, socially approved sexual relationship, children - powerful ideological concept, BUT it no longer reflects social reality (if it ever did) 2. Census (“official” family) - married couple and children (if any), common-law couple and children (if any), lone parent with at least one child, living in the same dwelling. Can be opposite or same sex, children cannot have own spouse or child living in household. - official definition - reflects changes in social life, emphasizes co-residence, generational and marital relations 3. Process (not looking at units themselves) - Families are where things happen: - identification (build our identity in relation to other people, ex. bobby’s mom) - intimacy (not sexual relations, but emotional support, closeness, sharing of events) - mutual dependency (who supports who. Who is expected to provide care, assistance, support to whom) - resource transfer (relates to mutual dependency) - protection - (violence) (for many families, they are not a source of protection, more violence) - broadest definition - emphasizes relationships and actions, not formal statuses Variations In Families 1. Formation and Dissolution - When do you “start a family”? - Partnership? Marriage? Childbirth? Interdependency? - cohabitation could be a starting point - When do families end? - Death? Divorce? Drifting apart? (violence, children start their own family) 2. Lineality (forward into the future, backwards into the past, who are you connected to?) - Who are your family members? How do you trace your kin? - through the female line: matrilineality - through the male line: patrilineality - through both male and female: bilineality 3. Extension - Who is your “immediate family”? (most say just parents, but lots include siblings) - Who is your “extended family”? (where does immediate family stop and extended family start?) - How many people are in your family network? - Who is it important to know about? How Do Sociologists Think About Families? 1. Functionalism - Individuals within families have roles and functions to fulfill in order to keep families strong - Families prepare individuals to function in other social institutions, such as workplace (prepare individuals for roles in society, and compliments other social institutions) - Division and specialization of roles is good (can’t all be trying to do same roles, good that women have certain roles, etc) 2. Symbolic Interactionism 3. Feminist Theory and the “Big Bang” 4. Postmodern Theories JANUARY 16 Major Trends: Social Reform - late 19th, early 20th century - response to high mortality, “vice” and oppression - political, religious, health (advancements in health. vaccinations, public health nurse, etc) - this era referred to as “The Age of Light, Soap and Water” Achievements: - rights for women within families (men couldn’t gamble their land, etc) - reduction in infant mortality - protection of children from exploitation (opening schools, laws passed the children had to attend school - couldn’t be used for labor or other purposes, age of consent laws, age of marriage - can’t be preyed upon by older adults) - reinforcement of “separate spheres” (unintended consequence - many reforms reinforced the separate spheres for men and women - wages should be high enough that an employed man can earn enough money to support wife and children and not have to suffer tragic fate of wife and children working as well - good because higher wages, bad because workforce seen as where men belong, women belonged in the home) Major Trends: Immigration - 18th century - French, English, Irish, Scottish - Quebec, Ontario, Maritimes - Large rural families (families with 15 kids, spread out rapidly in earliest years) - Early 20th Century - British Isles and central and eastern Europe (Canada was safety valve from pressures in British Isles - land there being seized for farming, or when all crops failed and nothing to eat. These immigrants weren’t high in social ladder and were pushed out of home for various reasons) - Ontario and west - “Chain migration” (one family comes and tells people back home that it’s good in Canada, then another family that they know comes, and another....) - Rural and urban - >400 000 in 1913 alone! (Canadian gov’t had preferences of who they wanted coming into Canada - concerned with filling up the west with white settlers, afraid Americans might come up and decide to keep it) NOT WANTED IN CANADA: - Chinese families - 1885 - Chinese head tax (wanted the men to work, but not to bring their families) - 1923-1947 - Chinese immigration stopped (decided we had enough, don’t need anymore) - Black families - “up to a few years ago there were practically no Negros here, then a few families arrived; these found the climatic conditions congenial and sent back for their friends. It is hoped that the Dominion Government might devise some means of stopping this undesirable influx.” (Resolution passed by Edmonton Board of Trade, 1910) - Indian families - “Continuous journey” requirement (kept out through this - if you wished to immigrate to Canada, must be part of continuous journey from your point of origin - can’t make any stops in between, have to come straight from original country. Fine for people from Britain, but from India they couldn’t make that long journey in one go - would be turned away once got to Canada) - Jewish families - Canadian government refused to admit refugees from Hitler (especially if they had dependents - wives and children - along with them. Willing to take in workers but didn’t want families with them) - “None is too many” Today: - 1967 - changes in Immigration Act which changed to now favor skills and ability over ethnic origin - Many came from Asia, South America, Africa - Refugees and family reunification (who is in a family that is eligible for immigration into Canada - being sponsored in or brought in by family members here already) 3. Postwar Canada (good time to be a Canadian) - affluent, growth and urbanization - government support for families (would help with college if had trade that could work in economy. Family allowances to encourage child bearing - short-term rise in birth and marriage rates - “Domesticity and Security” (Adams) 4. The big story - Fertility Transition (once hit a fertility transition, almost never reverses) - women give birth to fewer children - births occur at older ages - Why? - greater odds of infant survival - changing cost/benefit ratio of having children - changing ideologies of parenting (idea now that you can’t have a lot of kids and still be a good parent - should be spending quality time with them) - more options for women outside the home (as opportunities increase outside the home, opportunity costs of having and staying home with a child go up - no incentive to have a child if you don’t perceive that you will benefit) Demographic Implications: - Fewer children per women - 1959: 3.9 - 2010: 1.58 - lowest in Canadian History - Aging population - Median age: (of canadian population - avg. age is getting older) - 1956: 27.2 years - 2006: 39.5 years - Longer life expectancy (we are living longer - not parenting as much - spending more of life as a senior) - 1956: - men: 67.3 - women: 73.0 - 2006: - men: 78.7 - women: 83.2 Implications for Families - Fewer siblings (China - now have generation grown up without concept of sibling - what does it mean in terms of social support? having an identity?, etc) - Less role division between men and women (rebalancing of economic sphere, duel earner families) - Increased women’s participation in paid workforce - Intensified parental focus on individual children (how will this effect parent/child relationships?) - More of adult life spent outside of raising children (what it means to be a family needs to be renegotiated) Marriage before and after fertility transition (Luxton) - Co-operative marriage (old school) - focussed on making a family, division of labour, distinct women’s/men’s spheres - Companionate marriage (new school) - partnerships, division of labour but shared more activities together, more affection, intimacy and friendship from each other JANUARY 21 JANUARY 23 - Marriage How do people end up in long-term relationships? 1. Social Exchange Theory: - People seek to “get” more than they “give” - Cost Benefit Ratio: do advantages exceed disadvantages? - Satisfaction Ratio: does satisfaction exceed expectations? (how does satisfaction we are getting from the relationship compare to expectations we might have? If we don’t expect much from a partner going in, will be highly satisfied. If high maintenance, will be less satisfied) - Dependence Level: are there better options than current partner? (how dependent are we on this being the only option? If dependence level is high - there are no alternatives to this partner - people stay in relationship. If dependence is low, either become unhappy or bail out) 2. Triarchic Theory (what has to come together for a high value relationship, has 3 processes that have to come into play sometime in history of relationship) - short term need passion that draws people together - gradually growing intimacy psychologically, closeness, disclosure - over the longer term have element of commitment. Is a deliberate choice by partners to take it to the next level. - these 3 things together end up in a high-value relationship 3. Social Influence Theory (we think we’re making free and independent choices all the time, but we are really acting under influences we might not be conscious of) - Structural: similar location in social structures and similar background (cultures, education, etc) - Psychological: complementary psychological needs ( - Ideological: influence of dominant ideas about what is attractive - Developmental: similar points in life course and emotional development (the partner you end up with is going to be at the same point and aspiring for the same things at the same time as you - more focussed on life events) Paradox of Marriage: - Growing alternatives to marriage (cohabitation, same-sex partnership, remain single. Much more socially acceptable than in past) - More adult life spent outside marriage (partly because we live longer) BUT - Marriage still highly valued - 88% of teens expect to marry for life - 85% of adults say marriage is better than singlehood Why do Canadians Marry? - Top 5 reasons: - signifies commitment - positive moral value (makes you a better person) - children should have married parents - financial security - religious beliefs - Top 5 perceived benefits of being married: - psychological support - knowing relationship is permanent - appreciating partner’s unique characteristics - being a family rather than an individual - having children Changing Notions of Marriage What is Marriage? ! Older (”traditional”) - universal - gateway to adulthood (young person who was not married was not really considered an adult yet) - necessary for economic survival (needed to have a partner to survive economically - and need to stay married) - primarily about reproduction (reproduction outside of marriage looked down upon, seen as only for marriage) - husband/wife roles clearly differentiated - permanent (prior to 80’s, was very difficult to bring marriage to an end any other way than spouse dying) ! Contemporary - contingent (rather than universal - depends on so many other things, finding right partner, being at stage in life that want to get married, etc. Becomes if I get married rather than when I get married) - aspect of adulthood (don’t become a grown up just because get married, now get career and other things) - potential for economic enhancement (married couples have greater income than single person, but not as much as in past) - children optional or postponable (may have ten yrs after marriage before children come along) - decreased significance of spousal gender roles - terminable JANUARY 28 - CLASS CANCELLED JANUARY 30 - Marriage Cont’d Benefits to men: - compared to singles: - longevity - health (regardless of marriage equality) - happiness (regardless of marriage equality - just the fact of being married is associated with increased satisfaction in life) - economic (married men earn more than unmarried men) Benefits to women: - compared to singles: - economic - happiness (if marriage quality is high - if women regards her marriage as happy she is more likely to be happy with life in general) (Marriage rate in Canada has been decreasing for quite a while - lowest in Canadian history - Increasing age at first marriage) (The bar has continuously been pushed up - need a better education to survive, so women need to delay things to get this) Why the decline? - age cohort size (demographic - canada’s population is aging, fewer people in age group that marriage tends to happen - number of marriages will drop because there are fewer people available for marriage - age cohort is getting smaller) - secularization (religion and religious values imposed on people’s life decision - decreasing emphasis on religion nowadays, marriage rates go down because don’t need to get married to stay with a person and still be accepted in church) - delay of economic opportunity (can’t go from high school directly to a career anymore - can’t get good economic opportunities without period of study) - more economic opportunities for women (outside of being married - not your only option anymore. Women might not take the first possibility that comes along or be able to exit marriages because they can sustain themselves alone) - alternatives to formal marriage: 1. Cohabitation: - “common law” (many of same rights and responsibilities that used to be only for married couples - considered common law if living together for two yrs, or have a child) - rapid increase - changing legal status - formerly associated with lower socioeconomic status (originally only with poorer groups) - most common among young ... and “post marriage” (biggest surge has been in people over 40, post marriage) - global (much more prevalent internationally) - different from marriage: - shorter duration (didn’t make the vow’s like marriage so don’t feel guilty for leaving) - greater gender equality (with simple tasks and economic contributions. Heterosexual common law closer in economic than married) - private commitment (vow effect - cohabiting couples talk about sense of commitment, but don’t talk about making vow, promise in front of god. Nature of commitment much more private than married couples) - less involvement with extended family (married couples involved more in extended family, cohabiting could be because they are newer couples and not seen as part of the family yet) - higher rates of domestic violence (may be because of shorter duration of cohabiting) - Is cohabitation “trial marriage”? - Yes: - five years after beginning cohabitation, 44% of women and 41% of men are married to partner - pregnancy most likely to trigger shift to marriage - No: - cohabitation increases likelihood marriage will end in divorce - Why? - different view of sanctity of marriage (permanence, significance - less likely to view marriage as eternal commitment) - greater independence of partners (each have their own economic resources, easier to go separate ways when unhappy) 2. “Living together apart” (LAT) - partnership across distance - 5-10% of partnered adults - effect of technology and employment migration (move to where the jobs are, and significant other may not move too) - “post marriage” partnerships (have been married before, don’t want to re-marry or they want own space still, or not as mobile if have children, etc.) 3. Same-sex marriage - numbers still not huge, number has doubled in 10 years between census - from “invisible” to “visible” (more people out and publicly willing to report relationship status) - can be marriage or cohabitation - increase in childrearing - supported by “domestic partnership” legislation (none married in 2001 because not legal, 17% in 2006 married, 37% in 2011 census) FEB 4 - TEST FEB 6 FEB 11 - “Baby shock” and public policy - “Baby shock” - arrival of child is eagerly anticipated event - with unanticipated consequences - income decrease (women who are mothers earn less than non-mothers, not significant difference for fathers/non-fathers), expenditure increase, marital satisfaction decrease (increases again once children are older), global life satisfaction decreases during childhood (how would you rate your life? Increases as children move into school age and need less parental attention), gender relations more traditional, lifetime wealth potential decreases for women (men more likely to be in paid workforce, women at home unpaid work - gender wage gap grows) - Couples as (new) parents (types of couple relations that emerge when child in picture:) - caregiver: earner (similar to traditional marriage. One individual primary caregiver (usually woman)) - manager: helper (shared responsibilities between parents, but one party who organizes it, keeps track of what needs to be done and delegates to helper. Helper often perceive they are completely sharing everything, manager perceives he/she is doing majority of work and helper has to be reminded/asked to do things) - gatekeeper: outsider (one parent guards gate for everything to do with children, other parent is kept on outside. Can bring in money but other parent is primary interaction with kids. Can evolve out of caregiver/earner) - equal: equal (shared responsibility for finances, as well as unpaid work. May not always be sharing same tasks, but equal in terms of hours, etc) - alternate: alternate (parents alternate roles. For a few yrs, one may be primary earner, other at home and may switch. Over long span of parenting, alternate roles back and forth. May not look equal at any given time, have to look at longitudinal. Often associated with broader economic trends (booms/busts)) - “privatized parenthood” - Would you take this job? - flat salary scale and career ladder (can’t move up the ladder) - low control/high demand (lots of pressure placed on you) - no in-service training - no limit on hours worked - no contract - no pension or benefits - poor occupational health and safety - “the most important job in the world” - Easing “baby shock” - gender equity - dual-earner status (report easier transition to parenthood - coming into it with relative economic equality) - agreement on child-rearing philosophies (will work out better if on same page with how to raise children) - adequate financial cushion (poverty makes change difficult. Need financial basis) - network of extended family and “chosen family” (isolation doesn’t produce good outcomes for parents or children) - public policies that support families - post-partum depression support - child-friendly workplaces and institutions (school system are made up on premise that there is always an available parent at home during non- school times, and a parent available to support children in school at all times) - high-quality child care - Models of public policy for parenting - non-punitive/interventionist (public services for children, parenting support) - punitive/interventionist (removal of children from parents, punishment of “bad parents” - done in absence of more supportive policies that could have supported the parents in giving a good quality life in home - traumatizing for children to be removed from families) - non-punitive/non-interventionist (parenting entirely privatized, state involvement limited to schooling & taxation - it is all left to parents, no involvement at all, impose taxes for jurisdiction - (predicting that as populations age, will be much more pull back of states from child involvement) - “two-track” policy (policies that need to be put in place to help families) - track 1: early childhood care and learning - universal access (to childcare - good facilities are expensive, have long waiting list - many parents forced to put children in substandard care because can’t afford it) - well-trained and appropriately-compensated staff (can’t keep staff because not paid well enough) - parental involvement - integration with education system (in AB, have two ministries that don’t communicate between early childcare and elementary school) - track 2: parents in the home (unpaid, staying at home with kids) - parental leave (needs to be available and accessible) - including fathers! (important because the more interaction they have with children when small, more they will have regular contact down the road, even after divorce) - home based and centre-based services for young families (public health nurse, parenting coordinators coming to home, etc. Important for high- risk families that can’t go to services, need them to come to families) - economic assistance (poverty not good for anybody, especially kids. Need financial support in home) - The two tracks are complimentary - Canadian policy tends to do one or the other, but works best when they are together not one or the other. Feb 13 - Video & Notes Bidirectional Socialization Parents socialize children -gender -aspirations -behaviour etc ...but children also socialize parents -making parents -social networks -life choices -personality -making moms/making dads -gender divergence. -It was their children that pulled them into this.. wanted to create a better world for their children. Children can socialize adults into being active in the world. -Often through the kids that parents are drawn into Canadian society. (ie. They master English first) -Afraid that they may be loosing authority over the child if they are so dependent on the child. -child behavior and parent mental health. -How children make fathers into dads and into moms. i’m a person and now I am a mom. -The experience of having a mom or dad made them a better person. -Pregnancy and the possibility of becoming a mom who have dependence.. is a moment where they are more receptive to treatment and are wiling to go through wit it. They have aquired a new identity when they are going to be a mom. -what is being sold to moms and what is being sold to dads -Cultural variations in parenthood -duty Parenthood -hierarchy -Intimacy -interaction duty the child has a duty to support the parents when they are older... parents have the duty to look after their children when they are young. The child has a duty to take the parent in. on the other aspect.. no way is she moving in with her daughter.. did not believe their daughter had a duty to look after her. (independence) hierarchy who is in charge? Does the parent make decisions for the child? -children are not listening to their fathers. a weak and fluid heirarchy in parenting where children had a lot more control over their lives and what they are going to do. No strong hierarichal bond. -Interaction - how much do they spend together? Segregation? Spheres? -the idea of the family as an interactive unit.. it is very strong (work together, spend time together) Others are separate spheres and lives within the family. (observance of holidays... leisure time, who do you spend it with?) Intimacy - varies by generation as well as culture. Are parents and children best friends? Do you tell you mom everything? expectation in some cultures that children are intimate. Others are not as intimate. Parenting vs parenthood Parenting -collection of skills, activities, behaviours exercised towards children -‘expert knowledge’about parenting (ie. sleep coach, hire someone to teach your child to ride a bike, blogs and seminars on how to do parenting..most infused with expert advice) Parenthood -quality of parent/child relationship -mutual knowledge and respect -increasingly difficult to achieve: -work demands -childrens peers -media/technology-- take up a lot of time, can be alone together. emergence of a new style of parenting intensified parenting (take a work model and take it into parenting) -children need constant cultivation and attention -childhood extends into 20s associated with social class-- minimum wage, not going to have time to spend with their child. to cultivate and nurture. -snow plow children. -concerted cultivation vs natural growth-- children should grow the way that a plant grows, parent provides with necessities, but the child has to make their own way in the world.. more important that they become independent. -gendered implications supermoms and dads? -children will not grow up by themselves. they need attention. -they should get it for a long time. the boomerang kids. Kids who do not leave home.. still living with mom and dad. Strange for anyone to be living with their parents after their twenties. -extending childhood.. adds to intensive parenthood. • expectations for what is considered an adequate living have gone up. Are not satisfied with something not as nice. Feb 25 - Feb 27 - Paid Work/Unpaid Work (child care, housework) Gener and Paid/Unpaid work: - Generational Change: Men (small), Women (BIG) - Childbearing “window”: men (larger), women (smaller) - Influence of childbearing on career choices: men (small, but growing), women (large) - (argued that women aren’t making choices that disadvantage them, but no way for their to be balance with men) - “Earning/caring” tension: men (small, but growing), women (large) Minutes of unpaid work per day: 1986: Men - 91, Women - 145 2010: Men - 94, Women - 104 (childcare seems to be holding steady, but minutes spent on cooking/cleaning/fixing, etc has declined) Types of Unpaid Work: - Housework - time-saving innovations (purchase of fast food, microwaves, hiring somebody to clean house, etc. Things that reduce time spent doing housework) - reductions by women - Child Care - time-intensive (amount of time spent in childcare hasn’t changed a lot, can’t get somebody to feed your kids and do your homework for ex.) - (small) increases by men - (most childcare is not interactive - more transportation and waiting for your child when they’re at a structured lesson of some sort - not quality parenting time The “triple shift” 1. First shift: paid employment 2. Second shift: social reproduction (how you reproduce the conditions of daily life - things that need to be done for daily life to continue) - cooking, cleaning, repairs, shopping, etc 3. Third shift: emotional work (the expression and management of emotion is as important as cooking dinner, etc to reproducing the family - goes towards making healthy, happy human beings) ! - nurturing, listening, helping, settling crises, “being there” (would be fine but the number of hours in day has not increased to combine all of this) Causes: The “time bind” - Increased work demands (increasingly cut into non-work time, because of laptops, internet, etc - new ways for employer to expect/require us to do things) - Intensified parenting - Dual-earner couples (days of SNAF are over - have two earners, but not enough time to do all things asked to do or ought to do) - 24 hours in a day 3 Ways of coping with the triple-shift time bind: 1. Collapsing the work/family divide - telework (working from home, merging work and family time), communications technology - progess? - constant advance of technology - home is work, work is home - a way to “have it all” (home with kids/family, but not give up earning potential) - saves “work-related” time and expenses (don’t have to buy work wardrobe, spend time commuting) - but...... - “flexibility” vs no boundaries (very difficult to say done working and now in home role - the flexibility of doing both at same time turns into work making demands at all hours) - “nonstandard” jobs (low pay, not so great jobs) - loss of social connections (workplace is somewhere where you can have grown up interactions, dress nicely, etc. - end up feeling lonely) 2. Outsourcing - purchasing services in the private sector - maids, errand service, driving service, etc. 3. Gendered division of labour - “She does the feeling, I do the fixing” - Breadwinner/caregiver (one partner brings in money, other does unpaid work) (traditional breakdown) - Separate spheres (each partner “specializes” in some unpaid tasks; no overlap - both doing a lot of unpaid work, but have defined different spheres of unpaid work that they will take on) - Manager/helper (one partner organizes unpaid work, the other “helps out” - both engaged in unpaid work but one determines what needs to be done/when) - Peer/peer (equal input in decision-making and shifting between tasks - most difficult to manage but has highest marital happiness - both putting in work and decision-making, tasks shifted and not specialized as much) Why do gender differences in unpaid work persist? - Modeling -> women are putting in more of unpaid work because that’s what their mothers did and so on. We see it as normal (but not everybody wants to emulate the family situation they grew up in) - Time availability -> not so much about gender, but more about who has time to do things. If both working jobs, but one working 50 hrs, other person with available time will pick up extra work. - Resource balancing -> women do more unpaid work because they are balancing resources that both of them are bringing into the home. Men are bringing financial resources and money to table, women bring time because they don’t typically have money to bring to the table. Each party is contributing (doesn’t work for non-typical couples because: Woman earns more money, emasculating for man, won’t be more emasculated by becoming Mr. Mom, so they don’t pick up the unpaid work. - For a woman to be successful and invested in career is un-feminine, so they express a feeling of guilt. Women overcompensate, so they go overboard by taking up tasks as wife and mother as way of securing their gender identity.) - Gender ideologies -> messages we get from world around us telling us what wife, mother, husband, father should do. Manifested when one person steps out of role and is seen as odd/unusual and is often commented on - ex. woman who takes her car into service station and they wish to speak to husband. March 4 - TEST March 6 - Separating and Re-Partnering Divorce as a process and event: Event: (divorce decree is break with past) - legal declaration marking end of marriage (a milestone event that happens. Legally terminated) - spouses are able to remarry (freedom of former spouses to re-marry) - (some) ties between spouses come to end (breaks connection between the people) Process: - extended period of marriage breakdown (doesn’t happen at one moment in time, extends over months or years) - sometimes periods of separation and reconciliation (not always linear and moving in straight line. Go from being together to not, and back to, etc) - relationships reorganized but not ended by legal divorce (especially if have children, Might not be married anymore but relationship continues in some other form) History of divorce in Canada: - Pre 1968: - contract model of marriage (divorce could only occur if matrimonial fault was established - somebody broke the contract) - “Matrimonial fault” as grounds for divorce (highly gendered. easier for man to get out than woman) - men: prove wife’s adultery - women: prove women’s “adultery-plus” (considered ok for men to be unfaithful, had to say he was having an affair as well as cruelty or another aspect) - Presumptions: - children were property of man - man (if at fault) supports former wife (if wife at fault, didn’t get anything) ! (if husband and wife agreed to end marriage, would hire a Shady Lady to take ! husband to hotel room only to talk. Wife would show up with lawyer and prove ! infidelity and divorce would be granted) - 69/69 legislation: homosexual legalized, contraception legalized, divorce laws changed so no fault - Divorce rate isn’t climbing, they peaked in 1987 @ 3.6/1000. - Quebec has highest rate, Alberta second highest. Newfoundland is lowest rate - remarriage more common for men than women Social And Cultural Contexts of Divorce: - Secularization (as Canada becomes less religious society, divorce rates go up) - Liberalizing attitudes towards single adults (marriage is no longer understood as only possible way to be adult. Not as much stigma for unmarried adult) - Women’s economic autonomy (women moving into workforce - no longer as dependent on or tied to husband to provide financially. Can support themselves) - “Pure relationship” ideals (shifting notions of what marriage/intimate relationship should be like. Moving towards egalitarian, non-permanence. More marriages come to an end when they don’t feel they have this anymore) - Decreased threshold of tolerance (in older days, put up with whatever behaviors you didn’t like from other party as long as they held up their end. Now if you don’t agree with something, you just don’t have to put up with it) Demographic Correlates (not causes) of Divorce: - second marriage (have higher dissolution than first marriages. If end one marriage, more likely to end a second and so on. Predictor of future behavior. Also say there are added stressors in second marriages, such as blending of children, that isn’t there in first marriages) - young age at marriage (the younger when married, more likely to end in divorce. Divorce rate overall coming down because fewer people marrying young. - premarital cohabitation and/or childbearing (people who cohabit or have children pre-maritally more likely to end in divorce. Cohabitors less likely to hold marriage in high regard and view as sacred) - urban residence (higher divorce in cities. More opportunity to meet other partners, more employment/occupation) - weak religious affiliation - low socioeconomic status (more common among not well off. Lots of stress because of poverty. - parental divorce (if parents divorced, more likely to divorce. Kids don’t have any concept of marriage because not exposed to a good marriage. But children with divorced parents may be less likely to stick it out in bad marriages because see it is possible to end it) Why do people divorce? - Legal grounds - separation of one year (95%) - haven’t lived together for a year, not reconciling - adultery (3%) - cruelty (2%) - might have legal proceedings because of assault, or don’t want to wait one year so do this (adultery also) - Stated reasons - lack of communication - conflict over time use - addiction - childrearing - infidelity - desertion - abuse ! (formerly accepted in fault base model, still used) March 11 ◦ Legal grounds ◦ Separation after one year 95% ◦ alternative 3% ◦ activity 2% What happens next? Men ◦ Income increases after divorce ◦ expenditures increase ◦ social networks: Dating and living single ◦ Risk of depression increases over time Women ◦ Income decreases over time. There is no additional higher income.  Women are more likely to be carrying the bulk of the financial responsibility for children after divorce.  ◦ Expenditures increase ◦ Social networks: Interdependence with friends and family. Tend to be activated and to be strengthened.  Risk of depression decreases over time.  ◦ Spousal support (alimony)-- People do not have to give spousal support after divorce. People have to make claims for support.  Non automatic ◦ ◦ Compensatory (where one spouse has given up or sacrificed economic advancement in order to enhance the other spouse. ie one person goes to work doing double shifts to put the other one through medical school, one is a doctor and the other is still working at Timmy’s. They sacrificed their own economic prospects in order to benefit the other party, want compensation for that sacrifice.)  Stayed home with the kids, freed the other to seek advancement, seeking compensation for benefiting your
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