THE POWER OF THE SOCIAL
FOR MARX, power is related to the economic structure of society: how life is
reproduced, the relations in the system of reproduction.
FOR WEBER, sees power as two dimensional: one being individual actor's capacity to get
their way. the other one is domination/consent, where do we accept commands from our
'superiors' and why?
levels of analysis in social theory
today we will look at DURKHEIM
what is an "OBJECT OF ANALYSIS"
- it is the thing the concept explains, or believes needs to be explained.
DURKHEIM: WHAT IS THE POWER OF 'THE SOCIAL'? Does the social have power unto itself?
the process of breaking a theory down into more simple parts in order to displayits
theoretical analysis describes and explains social phenomena
it relies heavily on the domain of ontology. what kind of things are in the world? if
we say it is all 'social roles' for example, and that is all, then we have a theory
inflected through its object which is inflected through your ontology. is it roles, is
it classes, is it individual motives for power/sex/money/etc. or is it made up of
networks and other vast organizations of people.
the object of analysis will also depend on the level of theoretical analysis
undertaken: phenomenological, institutional, structural?
ALL CONCEPTS ARE TRYING TO EXPLAIN SOME THING. this is the OBJECT OF ANALYSIS.
PHENOMENOLOGY - you know what this is
crystallization of social practices into formal rules (or informal in some senses)
the study of collective patterns of thought and action
- ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS - structures of authority and responsibility, often
integrated in something like control systems
- CULTURAL ASPECTS - generalized models formulating and justifying rules, built up
into systems of thought and analysis (legal models, political models, religious
models, knowledge systems, professional discourses)
the study of enduring patterns of social arrangements within a particular society,
group, or social organization.
causal influences attributed to specific structural features.
the object of analysis is a social system: how do we explain how society is stratified?
For Durkheim, religious is THE PERFECT CASE STUDY to examine the origins of "THE
RELIGION IS SOMETHING IMMANENTLY SOCIAL.
it is collective representations that express collective realities.
he wants to understand how religion is social.
HE THINKS BOTH 'POWER' AND 'CAUSALITY' EMERGE FROM "THE SOCIAL" THROUGH RELIGION
he has a huge beef with empiricism:
even our understanding of cause and effect emerged through historical processes that
durkheim spent his whole life trying to define 'the social'
everyone was using it but no one defining it.
he doesn't buy into empiricism.
he isn't saying something like gravity doesnt exist, but jsut that the way we
understand cause and effect arises from the power of the social.
RELIGION IS THE RESULT OF HUMANS INCORRECTLY LABELLING SOCIAL FORCES AS RELIGIOUS
The ideas, values and images that people in a given society share and understand.
these things may directly represent society (ie religion)
he takes a 'positivist' stance in saying that SOCIETY affects us, more t