S Y M B O L I C P O W E R
REVIEW: in Catherine MacKinnon, it is in sex where we see actual manifestations of
male domination in the form of roles of subordination identified with particular
genders. the sex act is the effect of this systemic structure of gendered domination.
She saw gender to be THEE social construct, the only one. it is consequential for the
difference in social position.
BOURDIEU has a very similar interest: interested in social difference. he too will
critique scientific objectivism. but for Bourdieu, the mechanism is not gender, but
IN BOURDIEU, CLASS IS CENTRAL
- we'll discuss how he rearticulates and transcends the classical understanding of the
concept of class, bringing together Marx, Weber, and Durkheim...
THE ACTUAL, PHYSICAL SPACE WHERE ACTIVITIES OCCUR AND ACTORS ACT.
- A METAPHOR FOR 'SOCIETY'
notice the 'actors acting' rhettoric. what is fundamental to us are particular kinds
of acting. social reality is a system of rela"which constitute a space of positions
external to each other and defined by their proximity to, neighorhood with, or
distance from each other, and also by their relative position, above or below or yet
in between, in the middle" p.16
- when people are sleeping in a bank terminal, the space of a bank terminal is for
taking out money, but people are sleeping in it. it produces a distance between the
people taking out money and the people sleeping. they are producing distance by the
kind of action they do in the space.
he is moving beyond saying social space is ONLY a physical space. if that was the
case, the homeless and the people taking out money are in the same space and therefore
equal. but the actions actually position you differently: one is taking out their
money, the other is using it as a shelter. IT GOES BEYOND REALISM. there are actual
positions that exist within the same physical space. and it is not just about how we
interpret the space, it goes beyond that, there are actual relations that structure
how people interact in the same concrete space.
HE HAS TO MAKE A MASSIVE MANEUVER TO DO THIS, A MANEUVER THAT CHANGES SOCIOLOGY
BOURDIEU TAKES A RELATIONAL EPISTEMOLOGY
he critiques OBJECTIVISM - social facts as things; the study of an independently existing
reality. ie durkheim, marx. and he critiques SUBJECTIVITY - social world of representations; the
study of how actors live, act, interpret/make sense of their world. ie weber.
he doesn't take either of these views.
"I could sum up in one phrase... p.15
he defines objectivism as the "THEORETICAL RELATION" to the social world... it is at
the structural level.
the subjectivism is at the phenomenological level, meaning that soc is just a
construct of constructs, in "continuity with common sense" p.15
he doesn't talk about the meso level — the institutional... FIELD
THE NETWORK OF RELATIONS BETWEEN AND AMONG POSITIONS ACTORS HOLD WITHIN PARTICULAR
STRUCTURAL OR ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS
- it is not just the economy, not just the government, it is the FIELD that exists
amongst the real people in their relations. the field is a structure of objective
relations. it is a relational configuration endowed with a certain gravity which it
imposes on all the objects and agents which enter in it"
- it is the network of relations between the positions of the actors
there are several hierarchies of fields as well as hierarchies within each field.
- consider the banking space. there are actors who are sleeping and actors who are
taking out money.
- when someone enters a field, they have a real gravity/weight which demands you act
in a certain way.
- there are hierarchies: the people taking out money are above the people sleeping in
the economic field.
this is how the field has a relation to the structural level and to people acting in
THE FIELD IS A SET OF INTERCONNECTING POSITIONS THAT OCCUR ON SEVERAL
DIFFERENT LEVELS. THE FIELD IS BOTH A SYSTEM AND A SETTING.
so we look at the space where people are sleeping and taking out their money. there is
a system of banking where money is transacted and grown, but it is also a social
setting where some people are sleeping and others are taking out money. it is a
subjective level and an objective level. the fiels spans both points.
THE INTERNALIZATIONS OF NORMS, RULES, AND VALUES OF OBJECTIVE STRUCTURES AND THEIR
RELATIONS. HOW ACTORS CALCULATE FUTURE ACTIONS.
- it is a system of schemes of perceptions. it is the world of our representations,
how we make sense of things, how we plan what we will do next. what are those schemes
that we can evaluate?
- even at the level of individual representations, there is still the objective
structures that set forth what is a normal / good way of acting in a specific sphere.
- bourdieu argues that existing norms, rules, and values ahve been mentally and
cognitively integrated into the acto's frame of reference, and that they represent
general social standards as well as specific situational and personal experiences.
- this integrates the macro elements of a structured social world that imposes its
will on actors with dynamic agency, enabling actors to engage in indiidually
FIELD - SYSTEMS, SETTING
HABITUS - SOCIAL NORMS, INTERNALIZED THROUGH PERSONAL EXPERIENCE
*THESE COLOURS ARE CORRESPONDING ELEMENTS
habitus operates inside of us. IT IS NEITHER JUST INDIVIDUAL NOR IS