1. history of feminist thought
2. the marxian tradition
3. scientific objectivity
50 SHADES OF GREY
- binary of dominating and dominated, submissing, et al.
kind of outdated term because it presupposes a binary..
A form of social organization whereby cultural and institutional beliefs and patterns
accept, support, and reproduce the domination of women.
- in shades of grey women are actively submissive through their reproduction in work
and biology. this perpetuates patriarchy.
patriarchal systems contribute to the social, cultural, and economic superiority or
hegemony of men.
- sociology points out how society reifies patriarchy
- social institutions and commonly held cultural beliefs
- the consequences of patriarchy ie differential access to societal resources
including power, authority, and opportunity by gender.
we assume people in power are male. how do these assumptions change reality over time.
patriarchy the concept emerged as a reaction against BIOLOGICAL DETERMINATION,
assuming that your biology determines who you are and what you are.
- this idea that women were weaker because of their lower muscle mass and height etc
among the first to argue for women's equality. proto feminist.
Thoughts on Education of Daughters (1787) women aren't less intelligent, they are less
educated. it is not biological, it is social and political. (she still thought women's
education should be different and more fulfill their social roles)
The Vindication on the Rights of Women (1792) women become oppressed across class
lines! real freedom can only be obtained if men and women are treated equally.
she says women and men have been socialized differently, they are both biologically
FIRST WAVE FEMINISM
mostly about SUFFRAGE, the right to vote. starts in 1840s.
in the discipline of sociology, the primary message of first wave feminist scholars
claimed they had a right to participate in the discipline, to do sociology—theory
method and practic. that women can produce valid knowledge.
Feminism is the system of ideas and political practices based on the principle that
women are human beings equal to men.
- today we focus on materialist feminism and the socialist movement after the works of
MARX, including key concepts like inequality, production and reproduction, and work.
production is understood to be gendered: the ideology of patriarchy divides
women's work into public and private spheres. Women of every class find themselves
responsible in some way for the private sphere.
- women's double day / the second shift - sexual harrassment (started as a feminist concept)
- pay equity
- comparable worth
- the glass ceiling
- domestic violence (emerged from feminism)
tinking about how this principle of hierarchy organizes life at home and in the public
ESSENTIAL TO UNDERSTANDING THAT FEMINISM IS BOTH ABOUT EQUALITY AND HOW PATRIARCHY
ORGANIZES SOCIAL REALITY.
even in early writings from FOURNIER, MARX, and ENGELS, they notice there is an
- if we can ever have freedom from capitalism, we must find a way to emancipate women!
- MARX says the family is a product of capitalist ideology (capitalism wants to
reproduce its own labour force)
- ENGELS documents how women came to be seen as property, transacted as property, held
as personal property of men. this is as old as dowries etc.
*ANGELA DAVIS later calls this the "chattel" principle (given the last name of their
slave master, cant own property, less than human, etc many correlations with slaves)
SECOND WAVE FEMINISM
SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR
THE SECOND SEX
"what is woman?" how do social institutions define a woman and femininity.
DISPELLS "WOMANHOOD" AS A BIOLOGICAL/NATURAL PHENOMENON.
IT IS A SOCIAL PHENOMENON.
she also is talking about socialist notions of society.
the family is not just a job for women. that is something we social constructed (woman
as childrearer and family caretaker)
if we actuall want socialism, we also need to liberate women from these formulations.
not just a redistribution of labour, but of social reproduction.
she places most of the blame on the actions of women, but she was unique in noticing
that WOMEN WERE COMPLICIT IN THIS, they accept their subordination. the beaugeois
woman may not be educated, but she benefits from the enjoyment of living in the man's
SHE WANTS WOMEN TO REALIZE THAT THEY ARE COMPLACENT, SMUGLY BENEFITING FROM THE
OPPRESSION AT TIMES.
Men establish power and maintain control, she establishes a theory of how. we are now
starting to find real theories of how patriarchy is maintained. how does this power
operate. she uses an historical method.
juliet mitchell criticizes her for conflating patriarchy with a mode of production.
these two things aren't synonmous. it is perpetuated through ideology rather.
It is actually the other way around: the