in the frankfurt school, there is no cure for alienation in capitalism. art too is
also alienated from us. we can't remedy them but only acknowledge them, as with The
MEDICINE AS AN INSTITUTION OF SOCIAL CONTROL
- Irving Kenneth Zola
there is a moral judgement happening with the doctor: louis ck doesn't get the
treatment he expects for his ankle. they're like no you're just getting old. he's like
if i was an athlete what would you do. he says you're not an athlete. so the doctor's
cures are not for everyone. there is another judgement that the doctor makes. the
doctor makes the recommendations according to their own morality.
refers to both society broadly defined as a totality and its institutions and
subsustems that fill its needs to promote social cohesion.
1950s this became a big thing. talcott parsons invented it and it asks why does
society adhere together. how is the individual rooted and constrained by society.
we often think of functionalism as durkheimian, but today we will think of it in a
what is the tradition of this question
A - ADAPTIVE
G - GOAL ATTAINMENT
I - INTEGRATIVE
L - LATENCY
ADAPTIVE: individuals interact with their environment and adapt. ie manufacturing
GOAL ATTAINMENT: how is it that society creates its goals? how does it figure out what
it wants to be in the future? ie political resolutions, etc
INTEGRATIVE: values and norms that are institutionalized in our society, integrative
component. ie common languages, private property beliefs, religion. this is where
social control agencies form.
LATENCY: latent pattern maintenance. how society is seen correcting itself. how
society creates itself when conflicts come up. ie school systems, economy
AGIL assumes that society has to meet the needs of the people in it for society to
stick together. this is how people choose to stay together peacefully.
Harold Garfinkle, ethnomethodology
this guy is a student of Parsons. He looked at social stability as a problem, and how
is it that people work it out.
SOCIAL STABILITY IS A PROBLEM:
WE HAVE TO NEGOTIATE CONSTANTLY IN SITU. IT MUST BE RESOLVED IN EVERY MOMENT ANEW.
- these rules that generate order are called ETHNOMETHODS
ORDER IS SELF GENERATING AND CONCRETE ACTIVITIES OF EVERYDAY LIFE
- the actual things that people say and do to make order on the level of lived
it is when we transgress these rules, THAT IS WHEN WE REALIZE SOCIAL ORDER EXISTS
because we all come together to put the stability back together. THE ACTION HAS TO BE ACCOUNTABLE TO THESE RULES.
we see the rules once they are broken, so it is RETROSPECTIVE
WE MIGHT LOOK AT INSTITUTIONAL AND CULTURAL POWERS LIKE MEDICINE
- even when it is functioning normally, we can still produce froms of
UNNECESSARY UNFREEDOM. we may be subjecting ourselves to our own domination. central
here is the critique of expertise.
emergence of the doctor as an expert.
they PRODUCE ORDER through their sciences.
they are producing UNNECESSARY UNFREEDOM.
MARX looked at social order from the capitalist mode of production
WEBER looked at social order from large scale institutions like religion/bureacracy
DURKHEIM looked at...
here we have a shift in contemporary literature in how it is that in the social order,
the individual must look and see that it is for my own good that society adheres.
SOCIAL CONTROL is not about brute force. it isn't about someone threatening you. it
isn't about fear. it is about you realizing there is something you recognize is in
your interest. but this interest of your own came to you from outside. this interest
can be created by someone else, like the doctor.
PEOPLE THINK THE COMMANDS THEY ARE GIVEN ARE GOOD FOR THEM.
MEDICINE tells you this or that is good for you. so you do it for your own interest.
but this thing they are saying is good for you might be an UNNECESSARY UNFREEDOM.
FORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL - even though you might not have been speeding, you slow down
anyway when you see a cop. it is just in your best interest to slow down cause you
don't want a ticket.
INFORMAL RULES OF SOCIAL CONTROL - queing up! you could just go to the front of any
line. but everyone will get pissed off. so it is in your best interest to just get to
the back of the line.
THIS ESSAY BY ZOLA is a pivotal moment in social control literature.
- once we understood what was good for us in our religious beliefs, we acted on them
in our own self interest. now it is becoming more about our HEALTH.
how is this legitimate authority of what used to be healthy and ill, purely medical
physiological terms, are spreading into all the spheres of society.
these doctors and their ideas are supposed to be objective and morally neutral, but it
HE IS NOT SAYING THAT THIS IS POLITICAL, IT IS NOT FOR POWER OVER THE STATE, IT IS NOT
ABOUT PARTIES. THIS IS HAPPENING ON A DIFFERENT LEVEL. (this is why he calls it
DAVID SUDNOW's 1967 study where he goes to ER's and just watches. There is
biologically dead and clinically dead. by what rules are doctor's making this
different proclamation about someone biologically dead or clinically dead. physicians
are less likely to proclaim you clinically dead if you are young. they will try much
harder to recuscitate a young person. but if it is not a car accident but a motorcycle
accident, they are just like yup DOA.
the doctor is making moral judgements about who to resucitate.
ZOLA says it is not doctors individually guilty of this but the whole of medicine
ZOLA is identifying a number of things happening. links between PUBLIC HEALTH as healthy and ill being categories for society in general.
PSYCHIATRY emerges as a sense of legal deviance. psychiatry is only targeted to the
abnormal. he wants to know how the 'normal' construe themselves as medical subjects.
medicine has a relation to the law as well.
there are reportable phenomena. it is required that the doctor sends certain info to
the govt's ministry of health so they can keep tabs on the health of all of society.
physicians have to report to authorities when other things show up: if they treat
someone with a gunshot wound etc. if you attempt suicide the authorities get notified.
it is reported to other authorities of the law.
ZOLA also wants to rebutt common arguments against notions of social control (how can
you say anything negative about medicine!?)
- people say that if we medicalize something, say it is a medical disorder, it removes
those cultural things like punishments.
- because we have categories like developmental disorders, it excuses the person from
being stigmatized with moral categories or being held responsible.