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Anthro Midterm 2 Notes.docx

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University of Calgary
ANTH 331
Tania Saj

Lecture 5 - ideas about gender not fixed - our society maintains a dichotomoy - gender assymtry: o mens roles/activities are more highly valued than womens o men tend to have more power than women (particularly in public sphere) - domestic vs public sphere (men are public, women are domestic) - Rosaldo - Rosaldo thought this was universal (though we know this split doesn’t occur in all societies) o Domestic: the home- unpaid tasks of domestic sphere are less visible and thus less valued- considered “unproductive”- estimated 33% of GDP using “replacement value” – women do 62% of unpaid work  Child care in Canada: women do more than men- though men do MUCH more than they did in 1986- women do more than they did in 1986 though too- thus women are both working outside of home AND intensive mothering -> “double burden” effects their careers o Public: politics, economics- gendered masculine- “Paid” labour thus “productive” - In Norway, men get parental leave as well- they are encouraged to share the leave equally- 90% of men take 3 month leave (40% of British men take 2 weeks leave) - Canadian men are doing more than world average of household labour- canadian women are doing less than world average of household labour (because more women work here) o As female employment rate goes up, her unpaid labour goes down (inverse) o As female employment goes up, mens unpaid labour goes up (positive relationship) - Rosaldo does not think this gender asymmetry is biological-> socially constructed o Why? Because women are almost exclusively the child raisers - women/mother overlap, whereas male/provider overlap - women are 47% of Canadian workforce- tho not many in high positions- underrepresentation of women at the top - 2013: rank of Canadian women in parliament: 47/188 o in 2012: 38/188 o we got WORSE o #1 is Rwanda - gender stereotypes -> proscriptions and prescriptions - men: agentic – women: communal -> we are expected to live up to these norms o categorize occupations as agentic/communal o we tend to think higher status jobs require agentic skills- therefor require males o agentic women seen negatively- bitchy, aggressive, selfish, etc. o study of people rating candidates -> voters felt “moral outrage” towards the agentic female candidate- not just dislike but moral outrage- candidate is seen as deviating from her norm as communal woman - glass ceiling: artificial/invisible barriers stopping women from getting to the top - women in other countries are part of the public sphere- asanta market women- this split is not universal - some countries have a matrilineal hierarchy- womans father and husband are NOT included in inheritance – man shows allegiance to his mother/sister, not wife - extended families in Ghana: o consanguinity: relationships by blood o conjugality: relationship by marriage - *review movie notes* Lecture 6 - assumption in our society: to be successful and complete and women has to have children (and be a certain type of mother) - “mother love” is innate and instinctual - work of love, not work (mothering) - intensive mothering- makes it a personal engagement- not social (like how it actually is) – Kelly Ripa commercial - 73% of mothers with kids under 16 are employed in Canada - child bearing is socially constructed, different in different parts of the world - Murik people of Papa New Guinea for instance have “shared” mothering- so the mother is free to do other things like fish, trade, weave, etc. - Nuclear families are not predominant in the world - Traditional thinking of shared mothering was that it was deviant o They were really just adjusting the poor economic situations- needed women to work as well - Woman are “cooperative breeders” – Hrdy o “allomothering:” – allo: other than the mother - myth that all women want to be mothers o “”- not everyone wants kids- 7% of men and women do not - “mother mandate” – most appropriate type of mother is a married heterosexual -> step mothers -> divorced mothers -> never married mothers (last) o must not only be a mother, but be an appropriate mother - “motherhood mandate” in NAis culturally prescribed -> it is unrealistic - “Life boat ethics” - Hughes o Brazil- high mortality rate of infants- many kids because they are form of old age security and also no birth control o “passive infanticide” – high infant mortality rate shapes the mothers response o survival strategy to have passive infanticide (infant neglect) - in some parts of Canada there are drop boxes for infants - thus, mothers response is not universal- it is shaped by her environment - Mothers face discrimination in workforce- harder to get hired and get paid less - Study: assess resumes for a position o Commitment/competence were rated lower for mothers o Recommended salary was less for mothers o Mothers have roles and responsibilities they must fulfill above and beyond a job- childrens needs come first, thus mothers make worse employees - Motherhood wage gap: seven years before a women comes close to reaching her pre-birth salary again! o Mothers earn 12% less per hour than non mothers o One child = 9% less, 2 kids = 12% less, 3+ kids = 20% o Wage gap despite woman’s education - dominant model of fatherhood: breadwinner o alternate, emerging model: active care taker - increasing active fathering because: o women are increasingly in the labour force o generally less traditional division of labour in the house now a days o children have more desire to be with their children - backlack to Huggies diaper ad - fathers are seen as capable of being a good employee and a good dad- opposite of mothers o fathers as seen as being committed employees because they have kids o fathers make bigger salaries than non fathers o they must provide for their families and thus will be better employees - Aka – father bonding o Communal net hunting with all members of society o Parents work together and are close to their children most of the day o Hold infants for on average 1 hr a day- compared to 10-20 mins a day for European/American dads o Fathers show lots of affection (it is expected) & communal net hunting is why they have a high level of paternal investment - males in some species experience physiological changes associated with pregnancy and child care o this is to ensure fathers participate in care giving- necessary for survival of mother and/or baby o prolactin increase in males- their hormones change- decrease in testosterone - in marmosets and tamarins the fathers are the active care givers - married men with children had lower T levels then before kids/wife- more time with kids = lower T levels o mens parenting behaviour changes hormones o thus human males must have participated in active care giving for all of time - human infants are especially dependent and also humans have a high fertility rate. How? o Shorten the interbirth level via father care giving Lecture 7 - there are multiple forms of masculinity in a society but usually only one dominant form - different cultures have different forms of masculinity - being a male does not make you masculine- have to work towards it- not innate - gender stereotypes are alm
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