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Final

Biology 243 Laboratory Manual 2012 Notes for Final Lab Exam

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 243
Professor
Heather Addy
Semester
Winter

Description
Biology 243 Laboratory Manual 2012Lab 1 What are my genes made of The chains of DNA are made up of building blocks known as deoxyribonucleotidesFivecarbon sugar deoxyribose whose carbons are numbered 1 to 5 The prime symbol differentiates the carbon atoms in the sugar from those in the nitrogenous baseOne of four nitrogenous bases adenine guanine thymine or cytosine attached to carbon 1 of deoxyriboseAt least one phosphate group attached to carbon 5 of deoxyribose there can be as many as three phosphate groupsPurines Two rings adenine and guaninePyrimidines one ring thymine and cytosineDeoxyribonucleotides are joined together by a covalent bond called a 3 5phosphodiester bond forms between the phosphate attached to the 5 carbon of the incoming deoxyribonucleotides and the hydroxyl attached to the 3 carbon of the deoxyribose from the last residue of the growing DNA chainDNA synthesis proceeds in a 5 to 3 direction new deoxyribonucleotides are added to the 3 endPhosphodiester backbone provides spinelike support for arranging the bases in a linear sequential orderThe unique sequences of bases encoded by DNA provides all the information needed for making RNA molecules with a complementary sequence which in turn provides all the information needed for making protein molecules with specific amino acid sequence this flow is called the Central DogmaDNA polymerase takes single nucleotides match the base against the base of the nucleotide at the 3 end of the template strand and start connecting nucleotides to each otherDNA is antiparallel and double strandedThe four bases form hydrogen bonds A and T G and CEach base can rotate around the 1 position of the deoxyriboseIn double stranded DNA the base is always arranged in anti conformationNatural DNA will twist just enough to form a full turn after 12 nucleotidesRNA has a hydroxyl group attached to the 2 carbon but DNA does notIn nucleus of human cells the 46 chromosomes contain over 6 billion base pairs of informationEach chromosome contains two strands of DNA each composed of about 100 million nucleotide unitsThere is about 2 m of DNA in the nucleus of 5 m in diameterThe long thin DNA is wound around positively charged proteins called histones in eukaryotes that help to fold up the DNA into a highly condensed structure called chromatin
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