CPSC 409 Study Guide - Final Guide: Ibm Pc Compatible, Vint Cerf, Semi-Automatic Ground Environment

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Mainframe and Super Computers
IBM
1900's : Large calculators
1950's : Scientific and Business Calculators
70% of U.S market share from the 50's onwards. Research and development: 500 million
The NORC
Naval Ordinance Research Calculator
IBM's goal was to produce the fastest machine possible. (Possible first super computer)
US Navy's bureau of Ordinance was having trouble finding someone to produce a machine capable of this
type of large computation problems. IBm agreed to develop it, even though it wouldnt make any money.
Ready 1954.
264 Williams Tubes : 3600 words x 16 bit words (17th for error checking)
15 microseconds for addition. 31 for multiplication. Very fast.
Significant because improved the design of magnetic tape drives (x5 speed). Improved memory.
IBM 701
Designed at the same time as the NORC. Defense agencies of the Korean War. "Defense Calculator"
1951: Decision to produce 701. -- 1953: Completed. Worked out design issues. - Advantage over
competitors. (Leased at $15,000 per month. Made 450,000 a month.)
William's Tubes. 4096 words x 36 bit word size. Tubes were visible through glass and doors. 60
microseconds addition, 456 multiplication.
Successors: first group - 702, second group - 704, 705, replacement for second - 709.
The Stretch
After completion of the NORC, IBM initiated a research project to determine the feasibility of developing
a machine at least 100 times faster. IBM 7030. Named Stretch. High speed transistors, x10 speed.
Improved high speed core memory. Improved magnetic storage devices. Multiple read/writes in a disk
pack over magnetic drum. Pipelining.
Pipelining: As one instruction was executed, next 5 would be accessed and partially decoded.
1961: First delivered. Seven others were delivered later. NSA used one for code breaking. Incredibly quick.
1 microsect addition. 1.8 multiplication.
Machine was not as fast as hoped, so it was not financially viable. Not a demand for the development
cost.
LARC
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Livermore Atomic Research Computer (LARC)
IBM and UNIVAC were the only major players in the production of computers. While STRETCH was being
built, UNIVAC worked on the LARC for the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory.
8 independant banks of memory. 2 Computers (I/O, Arithmetic). Just slower than the Stretch.
High cost, and minimal demand.
Ferranti Atlas
University of Manchest: Fred Williams, Tom Kilburn produced the initial Manchester Machine. Joined
Ferranti to produce several others: Mercury, Pegasus, Orion (Greek Series)
1956: Kilburn investigate the construction of the Ferranti Atlas. Used a design that gave the illusion of a
single-level fast memory of large capacity. (Virtual memory) Magnetic core and drum.
Faster than LARC, slower than stretch. Not a commercial success either. 3 Installed.
IBM 360 Machines
Problems with existing machines: Not backward compatible. Designed for either commercial data
processing or scientific applications.
1961: IBM decided to produce a family of computers (360). Small, inexpensive. Basic operating systems
(360), tape operating system, disk operating system. All machines capable of the same operations. 8 bit
byte storage. ASCII was also in use.
Resulted in many other companies producing their own lines of machines that were compatible with the
IBM 360.
IBM and Computers 1960's - 1970's
As mentioned, IBM dominated the mainframe (computer) 1950's to 1960's. Billions yearly.
Next was Sperry Rand (UNIVAC) with 100 million in yearly sales.
the Bunch: Burrows, UNIVAC, NCR, Coltrol Data, Honeywell. Stable until 1980's. RCA and General Electric
left the market.
Seymour Cray
High end competition. Helped design super computers for CDC. Formed his own company: Cray
Computers. High end for customers like NSA-- performance over compatibility.
360 Clones
Many people, and companies made clones of the 360. RCA sold clone for cheaper than IBM. (No
development costs). UNIVAC bought out RCA's market and sold the 360 clones. Soviet Union made clones
to construct powerful mainframes.
IBM 370
360 architecture could no longer meet with the needs of the times. 370 had time sharing. Helped IBM's
problems with 360 cloning.
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History of the Internet
WWII
Axis vs Allies. After: Nato vs Warsaw Pact
Military recognized benefits of research. (calculations). To some extent, the seeds of the internet came
from WWII. Roosevelt 1944, wanted to support research so it could continue its wartime levels even after
the war.
Vannevar Bush recommend an open sharing of knowledge. Government sharing of research, but no
control.
SAGE
Semi Automatic Ground Environment : Radar system. North American air defense. Modem connections.
SABRE airline reservation system (1960's) : Two IBM 7090's connected.
1950's
Cold War and the Space Race. US and USSR wanted to be dominant on the ground and in space -->
Sending satellites first.
Appeared USSR had the edge. 1957: US three stage rocket was planned to send into space.
USSR 1957 launched Sputnik I. Later launched the dog Laika "bark/barker". Sputnik helped motivate
creation of ARPA. (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
Shook US image as technological super power. Eisenhower brought together the best technological minds
and ARPA was created.
ARPA
Branch of ministry of defense. Focussed on types of computers communicating. Research at many
universities around the US. Very small: no physical labs.
1962: Director, Jack Ruina recruited JCR Licklider to work on "command and control and behavioral
sciences"
Licklider: Worked on user-friendliness. Beginnings of the internet. Collaborationg between researchers
was emphasized (not the norm).
Bob Taylor (Successor to Licklider's successor) : Focussed on efficiency. Proposed ARPA begin working ona
networking project. Eventually, ARPANET. Other leaders werent enthusiastic. (It was unknown).
Wesley Clark stated ARPA would pay for a small intermediary computer to be installed at each research
center. Facility computers were the hosts. Intermediary computer = IMP (interface message processor)
Major focust of ARPANET: Computer resource sharing and packet switched communications.
Packet Switched Network: Message broken into packets, each packet has enough info to reach its
destination and re-assembled with other packest back into the original data. If packets were missing, they
could be resent. Slower than telephone networks but more robust.
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