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Final

GEOG 213 Midterm #2-Final Exam


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 213
Professor
Michael Zekulin
Study Guide
Final

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Geography 213
South Asia, SE Asia, E Asia, China and Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Oceania
Regions of south asia map
Regions and sub regions
Gangees valley of india, most of population concentrated/highest
One of the two cores in Pakistan panjab, extends into india, population and economic activity
India= superpower of the region, one of largest/fastest growing economies of the world 5/6% growth in
last 15 years, open foreign investment. High technology, productivity
Federal country- usually complex countries, city, linguistics, economic development. A lot of large cities
1.1 billion people estimated by 2025/2030 will take over as most populated country in the world
China is almost at a point with no population growth (one child policy?)
Population growth roughly 2%, faster growing than china
Government is democratic, cannot do as much as effectively as china (totalitarian state)
India = compared to other parts of developing world= highly industrialized
British colony, introduced industrial areas, and india has kept them, modern high tech industry
transformation
Bengal/Calcutta=original british industrial area
Bombay, commercial capital of india, was also british area
Chennai (madras) also industrial region, center of Indian high tech industry, electronics, software
developments. Most affluent part of India, highly educated population
A lot of services of the west have been outsourced
1-800 #s telemarketing offices. Cheap labour
Rest of the country is mostly subsistence peasants 70% countryside, one of the reasons india isn’t one
of the most affluent countries of the world
25/30% urbanized, 300 million people
Large portion of those are middle class, but still poor peasants
A lot of slums in India, in every large city
Pakistan
Biggest different between India is culture
Indian subcontinent, second largest country in south asia in terms of population close to 200 million
people
Muslim country, islam= religion. 85-90% of population
Roughly 3% growth, population and economic
Economic growth a lot slower than india
70% rural, economy not as prosperous as india
High illiteracy rate over 65%, higher for women
Two cores: Punjab, 7.5 million people in Lahore (city), agriculture is most productive in Pakistan
Original capital city of pakistan was Karachi (15 million people), still large city in the south. Commercial
capital, second core= SIND
Political legacy of instability
Dictatorships and military governments
Democratic government periods
Officially right now it is a democracy, imperfect democracy, influenced by the army, some corruptions
Both india and Pakistan are in possession of nuclear weapons
Have been disagreements between the two in the past, Kashmir conflict
Bangladesh
Was a part of east Pakistan until 1973

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Reason for declaring independence, was because they were being discriminated against by west
Pakistan
Independence movement during 60’s and early 70’s
Republic like india and Pakistan
Republic= head of state is elected/appointed. Usually elected
Head of state in a monarchy= hereditary, Canada= Queen Elizabeth II, USA= republic
Flood plain, particularly the southern part
Most densely populated rural populated area in the whole world= Dhaka, majority of population lives in
slums/poverty
Some cities in china and india increase by 1 million/ year
Sri Lanka
Equatorial region of south asia, tear shaped island
Was also a region of british rule
Different name= serria leone?
About 1/3 of country in southeast is culturally associated with south east asia, Buddhist?
Mainly agricaulteral economy, tropical produce, tea wheat
70% Buddhist, 15% tamil hindu and 15% other faiths
Legacy of ethnic tensions and insurgency (tamil tigers)
Himalayan states- Nepal and Bhutan
Nepal
predominately hindu country, population lives in southern part of country, adjacent to gangees valley
(india in the south)
buddism significant in the mountains
Tibet- Buddhism is the main religion there
Landscape of Himalayas, attracts a lot of people, tourism, wanting to climb mount everst
Majority of country population= sustustence peasants
Traditionally=monarchy
Changed a few years ago when the monarchy was overthrown, incident* one of the members of the
royal family, went crazy and shot most of the members of his family
Republic right now**
Significant pop growth 3%/year
Bhutan: to the east of Nepal, isolated, land locked. Traditional monarchy, limited degree of
development. Country is opening up to tourism. Absolute monarchy. Benevolent ruler, wuite popular in
country
Southeast Asia
Large extent and ocean. Tropical and oceanic environment 90% of area
Equator runs central through the island part of the region, east= pacific, west= indian ocean
Realm of peninsulas
Northern part of the region NW Berma (Myanmar) all the way to Vietnam, island areas are a large part
of the border area between the pacific and indian ocean (Indonesia and Philippines)
Mainland Northern part of southeast asia, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam
Insular: Singapore, Indonesia Brunei (one of the smallest countries in the world but also one of the
richest- sultan= head of state, monarchy-half a million people, oil*), Philippines, Singapore is even
richer, higher GDP (due to trade, services, manufacturing= higher economic activity)
Singapore connected to asia by a causeway, island. Major port, at one time it was the busiest seaport
in the world- ideal area. Tropical country
Malaysia: both mainland core and insuler

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A type climate dominates, min seasonal temp difference –equatorial rainforest, tropical monsoon
(western part of mainland and insular) high precipitation and humidity (high moisture levels), subtropical
Vietnam, northern Berma= similar to climate of south east US, florida etc
Tropical climate except at high altitudes
Similar to amazon, central congo
Uniform weather year round, no seasons
Closer to the equator= AF climates
More into the continent= less precipitation
All year round agriculture
Insular= all the islands, mainland= attached to china/india
Borders correspond to different nationalities
Complex topography – when you look at the mainland the mountains are major dividers, climate and
settlement
Most of the mountains in the mainland= 2000m or higher, most of the pop live between the valleys of
the mountains in the main flood lands of the mountains.
Mainland divided by mountain valleys and therefore rivers
Major river plains and delta west to east as you get out of the mainland: Irrawady (Myanmar-
Burma),Chao Phraya (Thailand), Mekong (Cambodia, southern Vietnam), Red River (northern Vietnam)
Hochimin city- comes from the leader, the father of modern Vietnam, previously city of Saigon, was a
communist dictator
Most of the population lives in the lowlands with some of the best soil (Indonesia, island of java=best
soil, one of most densely population islands/areas in the world. Similar to pop of Ganges valley, 100km
long 300km wide 100million people, most peasants=agricultural potential
Indonesia= most tectonically active areas in the world, volcanic soils= extremely fertile
Some of the biggest volcanic explosions, Tova 74,000 years ago, one of the biggest volcanic
explosions that world has ever experienced. Estimated amount of material thrown into the atmosphere=
many years= no summers, a lot of the plants the primitive people relied on extinct (Island of Java?
spelling)
Earthquakes all the time
Southeast Asia= population cluster
oIndonesia- 230 million
oPhilippines 90 million
oVietnam 85 million
oThailand 65 million
Predominantly rural- roughly between 50 and 75%
Many large cities over 10 million, Yangon (Rangoon), Bangkok, manila (principle city of Philippines),
Jakarta, hi-chi-minh city (Saigon)
Great cultural and ethnic variety and complexity- Indonesians, malay, Filipinos- thai – Vietnamese
Large Chinese minorities, largely urban (southeast asia)
oBusiness, merchant, entrepreneurial classes
oConcentrations: Thailand, Malaya, Singapore, java, Philippines
A religious complexity
oBuddhism: Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia
oIslam: Indonesia
oChristian: Philippines (Muslim minorities)
oMulti-faith: Malaysia- Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu
November 13, 2013
¾ population in Singapore= Chinese, very high GDP, Malaysia 32% Chinese, Thailand 14%
Numbers vary but chinese migration is still prominent
Other % a lot of European descent
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