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GEOG 213 Midterm #2-Final Exam

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GEOG 213
Michael Zekulin

Geography 213 South Asia, SE Asia, E Asia, China and Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Oceania • Regions of south asia map • Regions and sub regions • Gangees valley of india, most of population concentrated/highest • One of the two cores in Pakistan panjab, extends into india, population and economic activity • India= superpower of the region, one of largest/fastest growing economies of the world 5/6% growth in last 15 years, open foreign investment. High technology, productivity • Federal country- usually complex countries, city, linguistics, economic development. A lot of large cities • 1.1 billion people estimated by 2025/2030 will take over as most populated country in the world • China is almost at a point with no population growth (one child policy?) • Population growth roughly 2%, faster growing than china • Government is democratic, cannot do as much as effectively as china (totalitarian state) • India = compared to other parts of developing world= highly industrialized • British colony, introduced industrial areas, and india has kept them, modern high tech industry transformation • Bengal/Calcutta=original british industrial area • Bombay, commercial capital of india, was also british area • Chennai (madras) also industrial region, center of Indian high tech industry, electronics, software developments. Most affluent part of India, highly educated population • A lot of services of the west have been outsourced • 1-800 #s telemarketing offices. Cheap labour • Rest of the country is mostly subsistence peasants 70% countryside, one of the reasons india isn’t one of the most affluent countries of the world • 25/30% urbanized, 300 million people • Large portion of those are middle class, but still poor peasants • A lot of slums in India, in every large city Pakistan • Biggest different between India is culture • Indian subcontinent, second largest country in south asia in terms of population close to 200 million people • Muslim country, islam= religion. 85-90% of population • Roughly 3% growth, population and economic • Economic growth a lot slower than india • 70% rural, economy not as prosperous as india • High illiteracy rate over 65%, higher for women • Two cores: Punjab, 7.5 million people in Lahore (city), agriculture is most productive in Pakistan • Original capital city of pakistan was Karachi (15 million people), still large city in the south. Commercial capital, second core= SIND • Political legacy of instability • Dictatorships and military governments • Democratic government periods • Officially right now it is a democracy, imperfect democracy, influenced by the army, some corruptions • Both india and Pakistan are in possession of nuclear weapons • Have been disagreements between the two in the past, Kashmir conflict Bangladesh • Was a part of east Pakistan until 1973 • Reason for declaring independence, was because they were being discriminated against by west Pakistan • Independence movement during 60’s and early 70’s • Republic like india and Pakistan • Republic= head of state is elected/appointed. Usually elected • Head of state in a monarchy= hereditary, Canada= Queen Elizabeth II, USA= republic • Flood plain, particularly the southern part • Most densely populated rural populated area in the whole world= Dhaka, majority of population lives in slums/poverty • Some cities in china and india increase by 1 million/ year Sri Lanka • Equatorial region of south asia, tear shaped island • Was also a region of british rule • Different name= serria leone? • About 1/3 of country in southeast is culturally associated with south east asia, Buddhist? • Mainly agricaulteral economy, tropical produce, tea wheat • 70% Buddhist, 15% tamil hindu and 15% other faiths • Legacy of ethnic tensions and insurgency (tamil tigers) Himalayan states- Nepal and Bhutan Nepal • predominately hindu country, population lives in southern part of country, adjacent to gangees valley (india in the south) • buddism significant in the mountains • Tibet- Buddhism is the main religion there • Landscape of Himalayas, attracts a lot of people, tourism, wanting to climb mount everst • Majority of country population= sustustence peasants • Traditionally=monarchy • Changed a few years ago when the monarchy was overthrown, incident* one of the members of the royal family, went crazy and shot most of the members of his family • Republic right now** • Significant pop growth 3%/year • Bhutan: to the east of Nepal, isolated, land locked. Traditional monarchy, limited degree of development. Country is opening up to tourism. Absolute monarchy. Benevolent ruler, wuite popular in country Southeast Asia • Large extent and ocean. Tropical and oceanic environment 90% of area • Equator runs central through the island part of the region, east= pacific, west= indian ocean • Realm of peninsulas • Northern part of the region NW Berma (Myanmar) all the way to Vietnam, island areas are a large part of the border area between the pacific and indian ocean (Indonesia and Philippines) • Mainland Northern part of southeast asia, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam • Insular: Singapore, Indonesia Brunei (one of the smallest countries in the world but also one of the richest- sultan= head of state, monarchy-half a million people, oil*), Philippines, Singapore is even richer, higher GDP (due to trade, services, manufacturing= higher economic activity) • Singapore connected to asia by a causeway, island. Major port, at one time it was the busiest seaport in the world- ideal area. Tropical country • Malaysia: both mainland core and insuler • A type climate dominates, min seasonal temp difference –equatorial rainforest, tropical monsoon (western part of mainland and insular) high precipitation and humidity (high moisture levels), subtropical • Vietnam, northern Berma= similar to climate of south east US, florida etc • Tropical climate except at high altitudes • Similar to amazon, central congo • Uniform weather year round, no seasons • Closer to the equator= AF climates • More into the continent= less precipitation • All year round agriculture • Insular= all the islands, mainland= attached to china/india • Borders correspond to different nationalities • Complex topography – when you look at the mainland the mountains are major dividers, climate and settlement • Most of the mountains in the mainland= 2000m or higher, most of the pop live between the valleys of the mountains in the main flood lands of the mountains. • Mainland divided by mountain valleys and therefore rivers • Major river plains and delta west to east as you get out of the mainland: Irrawady (Myanmar- Burma),Chao Phraya (Thailand), Mekong (Cambodia, southern Vietnam), Red River (northern Vietnam) • Hochimin city- comes from the leader, the father of modern Vietnam, previously city of Saigon, was a communist dictator • Most of the population lives in the lowlands with some of the best soil (Indonesia, island of java=best soil, one of most densely population islands/areas in the world. Similar to pop of Ganges valley, 100km long 300km wide 100million people, most peasants=agricultural potential • Indonesia= most tectonically active areas in the world, volcanic soils= extremely fertile • Some of the biggest volcanic explosions, Tova 74,000 years ago, one of the biggest volcanic explosions that world has ever experienced. Estimated amount of material thrown into the atmosphere= many years= no summers, a lot of the plants the primitive people relied on extinct (Island of Java? spelling) • Earthquakes all the time • Southeast Asia= population cluster o Indonesia- 230 million o Philippines 90 million o Vietnam 85 million o Thailand 65 million • Predominantly rural- roughly between 50 and 75% • Many large cities over 10 million, Yangon (Rangoon), Bangkok, manila (principle city of Philippines), Jakarta, hi-chi-minh city (Saigon) • Great cultural and ethnic variety and complexity- Indonesians, malay, Filipinos- thai – Vietnamese • Large Chinese minorities, largely urban (southeast asia) o Business, merchant, entrepreneurial classes o Concentrations: Thailand, Malaya, Singapore, java, Philippines • A religious complexity o Buddhism: Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia o Islam: Indonesia o Christian: Philippines (Muslim minorities) o Multi-faith: Malaysia- Muslim, Buddhist, Hindu November 13, 2013 • ¾ population in Singapore= Chinese, very high GDP, Malaysia 32% Chinese, Thailand 14% • Numbers vary but chinese migration is still prominent • Other % a lot of European descent • Mainland is much more complex • Philippines= 400 million people? • From colonialism to independence • Portuguese, Spanish, British, French, Dutch, Japanese, America • Portuguese first contact= Magellan 1521 • Spanish acquired Philippines during 1520s • British and Burma (Myanmar) and Malayan peninsula (malaysia) 1800s • Dutch: Dutch east indies mid-1600s, acquired islands, present day Indonesia, called the spice islands. Able to rule that part of the world commercially through DEIC. • Americans: Philippines after the Spanish American war (1898), spain lost the war and Philippines, as well as influence/control over Caribbean islands. Americans kept Philippines as their colony until independence 1946. • Japanese WWII • Area called French-indo china • Mainland, French dominated eastern side, british dominated west • Thailand (sian?) central, remained undominated, maintain independence throughout colonial period. Maintained by both british and the French as a buffer between the French/british interest. Deliberately maintained as individual country to keep French and british from fighting for it. At the time it was a quite powerful country • Independence: Indonesia late 1940s, French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, laos):1954, after a long war with the French (ho-chi-minh), Burma:1948, Malaysia/Singapore: 1963, Independent Singapore: 1965 • Recent conflicts: o Vietnam war 1960s-1975 the domino effect theory: if one country in this part of the world falls to communism, very high chance that the countries around it will become communist. a cold war conflict, most important outside of Europe. One of the most brutal wars after WWII. Americans were trying to prevent the spread of communism in asia. North communist Vietnam, vs. south supported by united states- not willing to put enough resources (not only reason, also strong opposition)= US lost the war. Vietname= Russia supported o Cambodia: the khmer rouge (china supported) (extreme left wing) late 1970sm most radical communist regime, maoist regime, one of the most brutal in history, 2 million people exterminated- starvation, execution, harsh treatments. Depopulated all Cambodian cities to countryside to work. All people associated to old regime/against them= all educated people in country (higher than elementary), wearing glasses= sign of being education= subject to be executed. Vietnam invaded 1979, established new regime o Sino-vietnamese border war 1979 o A variety of different political regimes and economies • Dutch could not hope to control a large territory (weakening economy etc) Indonesia independence • Rivalries within SE Asia, important theatre outside Europe for Cold War • Eventually Cambodia= democratic. Vietnam= communist, growing rapidly, open to foreign investments and ideas, high economic importance Burma (Myanmar) • Was British colony until 1948, very underdeveloped, agricultural country live in Irrawady River valley and delta (yangon) Since 1961= paranoid military dictatorships which kept the country isolated from most of the world. Has been changing in last couple of years has been democratizing. On the way to becoming democratic republic. Peasant country. Commercial capital=Rangoon (was political capital), in the south roughly 10 million people • Naypyidaw= political capital, to escape opposition against military rule, establish a capital city away from that type of influence, valley of Irrawady river Thailand • Buffer between French and English, never been a colony. Constitutional monarchy: has a king but political power rests in government/parliament • Core: Chao Phraya (river) lowland, centred on Bangkok, largest city, commercial and political capital • Thai king= longest reining monarchy in the world, has been reigning since early 20s, is 80 years old right now • Compared to Burma, Thailand is much more economically developed* one of the more important/ richer countries in SE Asia • 60% population still engaged in farming, subsistence farming, especially in outlying areas in the north and the east. Rapidly transitioning to commercial farming • Large exporter of pineapples • Tourism* November 15 2013 • Main tourist area in Thailand is in the south, core area= economic • Laos in Cambodia= sparsely populated country Vietnam • Largest country in the region in terms of population • Elongated country, longer than wider • Chile= another elongated country • Capital city-____ 7 million people, red river valley and delta • Tailong bay north shore Vietnam • Meekong river= most important river in SE asia • City of ho-chi-minh city (*Saigon), not the capital anymore but 80% larger than the capital • Still a difference between the north and the south of Vietnam • Legacy of communism • Opening up to capitalist system, capitalist economy in communist system • Still predominately agricultural poor country in terms of GDP/capita • Huge difference between the two cores and the rest of the country • Economic development roughly 5-10%/year • Still struggling with the legacy of the war, and previous colonial war of independence • Biggest thing holding Vietnam back is population almost 100 million people Malaysia • Two provinces • Multireligious/national country • Core of the country is on the western side of the mainland • Capital city called the KL____ • Whole country doing pretty well economically • Similar to gov form of Thailand, constitutional monarchy • Few military coups • Affluence and economic development • Agricultural country • Subsistence agriculture-rice based • More and more commercialized • Urbanizing • Equatorial country • Wet seasons Singapore • City state about 10 million people • Very developed country • Similar in form to Hong Kong • Independent from Malaysia since 1965 • Multiethnic • Government=authoritarian, but business-friendly • SE asias chief port, financial and commercial hub • GNP per capita over US$35,000 • Comparable GDP to European • ¾ Chinese • Chinese Buddhists dominate instead of muslim • Cant be classified as democracy • Extremely clean city • Now very modern and developed • Would not be served if your hair was longer than shoulder (men), and you wouldn’t be served if you were shirtless (1970s), guy started spray painting cars, got caught, locked up- punishment= 50 lashes with a bamboo stick on the bum, gets kicked out of country • People willing to put up with stricter laws for higher standard of living and healthy • 90% urbanization roughly attributed to high standard of living • Largest muslim country shia • 13 000 islands, majority of population spread over 4 islands • strong colonial legacy • Blend of democracy and dictatorship • One island dominant= not largest in area, half population lives on that island –java, core of indonesida, Jakarta capital city= 15 million people • Volcanos, tectonically active area • 12 month growing season- densely settled and high production • Growing rapidly economically • Benefited from tourism, rice agriculture, one of the major oil exporting countries in the world • Population pressure is a serious problem • Developing country • Rather low standard of living, countryside subsistence peasants • Government trying to alleviate population pressures be encouraging migration from java to other less populated islands November 18 2013 East Asia • One of the most important regions of the world • Two dominant nations: Japan and China • China is similar in size and latitude to the united states, distribution of climatic regions, not entirely. China does not have western coast* • US= 400 million, China= 1.3 Billion • The pacific rim: economic dragons: south korea, Taiwan, hong kong (part of the PRC) • A throwback to Stalinism: North Korea • Topography: China- mountain barriers around the periphery- western and northern china-deserts (takla makan, gobi) – japan: generally mountainous (always had population/resource pressures) • Country of contrast (china)- core= north chian plain (lower chain of yellow river) • Gobi desert: eastern most extenstion of desert belt that originates in sahara, across middle east, into south east asia, on to china to takla makan desert in the west and then gobi desert.= sparsely populated • Highest mountain plateau in world Tibet- Seezghan, plateau created same time as Himalayas • NE Afghanistan mountains/china border • Southern and southwestern china= highland country as oppose to lowland area that dominates the east near pacific ocean • One of largest rivers in the world- one of the biggest dams in the world (supplies roughly 13% OF China’s electrical supply) • In eastern margins (along pacific coast--The pacific rim: the ring of fire, 3 tectonic plates, significant tectonic and volcanic activity • China’s economy is booming • Writing introduced in china 2000-2500 BC • Japan= largest number of earthquakes year to year • Tokyo 30 million people ? one of largest urban areas in the world…right in the midst of tectonic activities* • A lot of volcanoes • Climate: generally temperate (mid-latitude/humid or subtropical climates) monsoon influences in eastern china, japan*. China: most important similarities with the united states. Western China: highlands, mid-latitude desert. Eastern China: a latitudinal zonation of climatic patterns • CHINA=C-Type Climate, south eastern chunk where a huge portion of population lives • Yangzi river valley in southern china, ~90% of population lives (C-climate) • Monsoon influences and patterns in china different? to patterns in india etc. wet season, dry season. • Monsoon asia =60% of worlds population • Western china in to the interior= dry climate, more continental, arid, semi desert and desert area (B- type climate), H= unclassified Highlands • West and southwest= mountain areas • US and China, gets more dry as you move west • South to north= more continental and harsher, huge differences between winter and summer • Siberia~ northernmost part of china, very warm summers, but harsh winters • Population: worlds largest and most populous cluster, almost 1.5 billion in total, two distinct concentrations Japan and China • China o Eastern ½ of china- “west china” over 1 billion, dry china in the west o In major river plains and valleys, along the coast o Han Chinese: over 90% of the total o Minorities along the fringes o High rural densities, up to 1000 pers/km2 o urbanization over 30% rapidly increasing o one child policy annual growth down to under 1% (1978?) o Beijing to the south and around there is one of the most densely populated areas and best area for agriculture*, very fertile soils o Yangzhi river, valleys and plains very very fertile o NESW dividing line, wet china vs. dry china o Seechewan? Basin, very fertile area o Tibet- sparsely populated o 70% of population still lives in the countryside, maybe closer to 50% now. Areas in the west along the coast= area of most economic development and growth (and population) o Shanghai, hong kong, Beijing= some of the most progressive areas in the world o Shanghai= mouth of yangzhi river, east china sea coast, largest city in china and in the world- 15 million people? Booming city o Growing by 800,000/year o Shang zhen= fishing village 70’s, small town , now= 8million people*** o Very rapid urbanization attributed to economic growth o Mandarin roughly 50 million people o Cantonese spoken mainly in south eastern part of china, both Chinese languages, can’t speak one if you speak the other, but you can sort of understand • Japan- 125 million. Negative growth, rapidly aging • World’s longest life expectancy- over 80 years for both men and women • Over 80% urban • The world’s second largest economy until recently (currently third) • Still huge difference between china and japan • Japan- developed country, population is stable • Non-existent immigration to japan • Automated jobs, robots • Japan still way ahead of china • Japan was totally destroyed after WWII • Core of japan- concentration of industry, economic activity, largest cities, highest population, urbanization= east coast japan • Regionalization of East Asia 1) China proper- the eastern ½ of China, concentration of population and economic activity, and a bit of central but mainly coastal, pacific rim region 2) Tibet (Xizang)- a high mountain plateau, southern west, borders northern india, preservation of local culture has been threatened by Chinese presence 3) Xinjiang- the western frontier region, transition to central asia, north west, different from china proper in terms of ethnicity and religion, distinctly different area of china from rest of the country 4) Mongolia- a buffer between Russia and china, second oldest communist country in the world (1920s) regime collapsed for same reason it did in eastern Europe, more orientated towards china. Natural resources- metals 5) The jakota triangle- centered on japan, a dynamic region of economic prosperity- Benelux similarities of name: Ja-japan, Ko Korea (south), Ta Taiwan- Taiwan become one of the most affluent counties in the world. Economic cores. One of the most prosperous regions in the world… not part of it: North Korea- isolated • China: Historical Geography • Longest continueous history in the world, started in early second millennium BC, history more than 4000 years old • Invention of writing in early second millennium 1800-1700 BC • Associations with other early civilizations in the world • Hydro-civilizations- based on major rivers • Shang (1766-1080 BC) the first organized political entity, north china plain • Han (206 BC- 220 AD): ancient china’s “golden age”-Well established bureaucracy and imperial administration, economic expansion, agricultural growth • Tang and Sung (618-1279): medieval china- peak when Europe was in decline (dark ages after fall of roman empire, time of recession, primitive agriculture), this was one of highlights of chinese history, expanded tremendously, best organized and best run country in the world • HAN , TANG AND SUNG=most prosperous dynasties • Yuan (13-14 centuries): mongol control* expansion, created the largest land based empire that the world has every known, took control of political affairs of china • Ming (14 -17 centuries)- china prosperous again • Qing/ Manchu (1644-1911) gradual loss of power and territory • Forbidden City in Beijing, very wealthy* • Ruled Vietnam, Burma, areas lost when china became a republic • A republic-1911:decades o
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