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Study Questions Midterm 1 geog341.docx

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University of Calgary
GEOG 341

Study Questions: Chapter One_____________________________________________  1. Define “geography,” “economics,” and “economic geography.” What is the central problem of economic geography? -geography examines why things are located where they are located -Economic geography is a sub discipline concerned with the spatial organization and distribution of economic activity -Economics is a social science that studies the use of scarce economic resources to satisfy insatiable human desires 2. What do “location theorists” emphasize? What are the five major assumptions made by location theorists? What are the three major criticisms of location theory made by its critics? -location theorists emphasise the building and use of models derived from neoclassical economics and analyze economic activity under conditions of homoeconomics that assume: -all markets are perfectly competitive -everyone is perfectly rational -everyone has perfect information -all firms maximize profits -all consumers maximize utility - three major criticisms -Emphasize form at the expense of process -Portray geographies as frozen or unchanging -Be silent about historical context, politics, class, gender, ethnicity, struggle, power and conflict 3. What seven things indicate that the globalization of the economy has meant that national borders and differences between financial markets have become much less important? The globalization of the economy has meant that nation borders and differences between  financial markets have become much less important because of: 1. international finance 2. the increasing importance of transnational corporations 3. foreign direct investment from the core regions of the world 4. global specialization in the location of production 5. globalization of the tertiary sector of the economy 6. globalization of office functions 7. global tourism 4. What is “foreign direct investment?” What two trends demarcate foreign direct investment in developing countries? Foreign direct investiment (FDI) indicates investment by foreigners in factories that are operated by the foreign owners of MNCs. Two trends demarcate foreign direct investment in developing countries: 1. the proportion of FDI that core countries are allocating to periphery countries is  declining 2. FDI is becoming more geographically selective 5. Read Holden, W.N., K.M Nadeau, and R.D Jacobson. (2011). “Exemplifying Accumulation by Dispossession: Mining and Indigenous Peoples in the Philippines.” GeografiskaAnnaler: Series B, Human Geography, 93 (2): 141-161. a). How does Nadeau (2005, p. 334) define “development aggression?” development aggression can be defined as the process of displacing people from their lands and homes to make way for development schemes that are being imposed from above without consent of public debate b). How does the International Coordinating Secretariat of the Permanent Peoples’ Tribunal (2007, p. 186) define “development aggression?” development aggression consists of development projects that destroy a communities traditional economy, community structure, and cultural values. 6. For the world to become “developed,” what two critical issues require attention?  For the world to become “developed” two critical issues require attention 1. the challenge to economic expansion posed by environmental constraint 2. the enormous and explosive issue of disparities in the distribution of income  between the rich (countries and people) and poor (countries and people) 7. What are the four major questions of the global economy? (on exam) 1. what should be produced and at what level or scale of production? 2. how should the output be produced? 3. where should the output be produced? 4. who will receive the output that is generated? Study Questions: Chapter Two_____________________________________________ 1. It could be said that feudalism was a social order that operated under a system known as “______________,” with three dominant classes in society. What were those classes and what were their functions in society? There are still social classes under capitalism, what two characteristics define capitalism’s social classes? ­ feudalism was a social order that operated under a system known as trifunctionality,  and there were three dominant classes in society: 1. the clergy 2. the land owning aristocracy 3. the peasants of serfs – agricultural laborers that lived on the land owned by the  aristocrats ­ in exchange the peasants had to provide the land owner  1. Rent, ie a percentage of all crops they produced, and  2. Unpaid labour services, called the demesne 3. banal obligations, inheritance taxes, marriage taxes, milling fees  etc What were the respective reciprocating obligations of the landowners and the serfs in the feudal social order? ­ agricultural laborers that lived on the land owned by the aristocrats ­ in exchange the peasants had to provide the land owner  1. Rent, ie a percentage of all crops they produced, and  2. Unpaid labour services, called the demesne 3. banal obligations, inheritance taxes, marriage taxes, milling fees etc 3. The Black Death of 1348 is often discussed as a crucial event in the history of feudalism. What three characteristics described European civilization before the Black Death of 1348? What three characteristics described European civilization after the Black Death of 1348? Before Plague After Plague Land was scarce, labor was plentiful Labor was scarce, land was plentiful Landowners were powerful, peasants were weak Landowners were less powerful, peasants were less weak Serfs were basically slaves and were bound to the Serfs could now move away without fear of being land caught and returned 4. What is the single most important institution necessary for the proper functioning of markets? Why? Economists use the term “industrial organization” to describe the extent of competition in a given market.Along the spectrum of competition, from most competitive to least competitive, please list, and discuss, the four major types of markets. Under capitalism, the most important institution is the market. Markets consist of buyers and sellers of commodities which are goods and services bought and sold for a price More competition Perfection competition Monopolistic competition Oligolistic competition Less competition monopoly 5. Compare and contrast the relations between peasants and their landlords under feudalism with the relations between workers and their employers under capitalism. Feudalism Capitalism The labor obligations of peasants are determined by The labor obligations of workers are determined by custom and tradition. Apeasant has no choice about contractual relationships.Aworker is free to sell who to work for or where to live. However, a their services to the highest bidder however, a peasant can expect the landlord to provide a worker cannot expect an employer to provide a livelihood. livelihood. 6. Compare and contrast trade under feudalism and trade under capitalism. Feudalism Capitalism Trade was largely confined to precious goods Long distance trade is integral to capitalism. In (spices, silks, porcelain) and precious metals. The market based societies, trade occurs in all sorts of consumers were only the aristocrats, who had the goods from luxuries to everyday goods. The means to purchase such luxuries. Long distance expansion of trade networks was a major initiative trade was peripheral to the growing networks of land and sea routes that tied Europe to its colonies. 7. What is a “nation?” What four things demonstrate how the emergence of market  societies facilitated the growth of nation states?  ­A N ATION IS A GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO SHARE A COMMON CULTURE , LANGUAGE , HISTORY ,AND TERRITORY ,OFTEN MANIFESTED IN A COMMON IDENTITY . -THE EMERGENCE OF MARKET SOCIATIES FACILITATED THE GROWTH OF NATION - STATES IN SEVERAL WAYS 1. RISING WEALTH 2. MASS LITERACY 3. NATIONAL BANKING SYSTEM 4. A NATIONAL CURRENCY 8. Why was Great Britain the preeminent center of emergent nineteenth century  industrialization?  th ­ Great Britain was the preeminent center of emergent 19  century industrialization  because: 1. this was where the steam engine was invented 2. massive amounts of coal 3. iron ore located in close proximity to coal 9. What are “Kondratieff waves?” On average, how long does a Kondratieff wave  last? What happened in each of the five Kondratieff waves and how long did each  one last?  Capitalism is prone to long­term cyclical shifts in its industries, products, labour markets,  and geographis. This is a concept known as kobdratiev waves which are roughly 50­75  years in duration. First Kondratiev wave 1770­1820 –  the textile industry is easy to enter, has few Textile industry requirements in terms of capital or labour skills and this sector has initiated the industrial landscapes of most of the world Second wave 1820-1880s –heavy industry (steele These types of firms differe markedly from the light manufacturing and ship building) industry of textiles in that they require massive capital investment, where difficult to enter, and were oligopolistic in terms of their industrial organization Third wave 1880-1930 – numerous heavy industries This was a period of massive technological change, appear (steel, rubber, glass and automobiles) including capital intensification and automation of work.As local markets gave way to national markets most sectors experienced a steady oligopolization Fourth wave 1945-1973 – lasted until OPEC oil The primary growth sectors were petrochemicals shock and automobiles Fifth wave 1973-? Electronics industry Led by the electronics industry which was powered by the microelectronics revolution and by the explosive growth of product services 10. During the industrial revolution, six things led to a dramatic dropping off of the death rate. What were those six things? During the industrial revolution, however,  the death rate dropped off due to ­ better food ­ less malnutrition ­ lower infant mortality ­ cleaner water ­ public health measures ­ immunology 11. It could be said that the timing of industrialization was significant to individual nations. Please compare, and contrast, early and late industrializers. Early industrializers Late industrializers Early industrializers fared little competition Late industrializers faced a significantly different internationally. Their light industries associated wiinternational climate, one dominated by early the first wave of industrialization could develop industrializers. Countries which did not begin relatively slowly with minimal government industrializing until the late C19 faced significant intervention. Firms in sectors such as textiles, withcompetition in industries such as textiles. few barriers to entry and low infrastructural Consequently, these nations tended to experience demands and which were quite competitive relatively short periods in which their economies internationally were important in national political were dominated by light industry and moved rapidly climates characterized by laissez faire politics and into heavier sectors. In countries where heavy minimal government intervention industry dominates, and places significantly higher demands on the state for labor training, infrastructure and trade protection, national political cultures that lack more favorably on state intervention are more likely to develop 12. What was the effect of colonialism on Europe? Please compare, and contrast, the two  major waves of colonialism. What was responsible for the “inter­colonial interlude”  between these two waves? ­ colonialism changed Europe, deepening the formation of capitalist social relations and  markets as well as the nation states of western Europe Before colonialism After capitalism Europe was relatively poor and powerless part of Europe became the most powerful collection of the world, compared with the Muslim world, India societies on the planet or china Wave When Dominant ideology Colonial powers Colonized places First C16 – early C19 Mercantilism Spain and Portugal The new world and parts ofAfrica Second 1825-1945 Free trade Britain and france Large parts of
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