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University of Calgary
HTST 307
Michael Zekulin

History 307: Final Exam th • Architecture and Urban Planning as expressions of changes in rationale and ideologies in the 20 century • Scientific findings, disease and the environment, infrastructure- sewers (none comprehensively in the th US until later 19 century), wastewater diseases- cholera and typhoid *affected poor Utopian Cities • people the most • Environmental determinism- the environment affects people’s behaviour, conditions them, developed from Darwin • People believed that the hardships of the poor was their fault, or build better environments, get better people? • Garden City: Ebenezer Howard- British, radical city, spoke/wheel formation, each settlement had different purposes, increased contact with nature to mitigate problems of urbanization • City Beautiful- USA, The White City, Chicago World’s Fair 1893, Presented bright white, sterile urban environment, less natural than garden city nature came in form of designed parks  Both were form over function* th • The power of architects and planners to influence people’s behaviour changed roles in the 20 century • 3 major movements in design reflect the changes in uses of architecture and planning 1) Futurism: 1909 Emilio Filippo Marinetti- youth movement emphasized industry and mechanization, complacency killed peoples creativity, advocated violence to take apart traditions* linked to rise in fascism, The Chrysler Building, WWI= levels of mechanization scared people—futurism fades away but concepts still prevalent in later movements 2) Functionalism: ornamentation distracts from function. Louis Sullivan form follows function, taught at Bauhaus School in Berlin, Design without precedent, simplistic, leave tradition, Build around the function, form will follow. Ludwig Hilberseimer= High Rise City (1927) (no trees, no parks, grand scale, small people) 3) Rationalism: from functionalism, reason alone solves modern problems. Use info from many sources to address site issues. Functionalism and Rationalism taught as main aesthetics @ Bauhaus School. Rationalism had more complex aesthetics than Functionalism, bit it was still very minimalistic • Nazis shut down Bauhaus School for socialist and communist leanings… Albert Speer- functionalism, Nazi Architect, designed Nuremburg grand designs • USSR adopted socialism realism • 1973- Paris Exposition (German/Russia show off ideologies) • Spain- Civil War • Germany- Hitler ruled • Soviet Russia- Famine, new constitution • France, Popular Front elected • US, Canada, Britain- Depression • China Nationalists vs. Communists • India- Ghandi leading independence movement • WWII halted design o Its end led to start of cold war o First world west, capitalist countries o Second world: China, USSR, Communist/socialist o Third world: battle grounds for 1 and 2 worlds o Postwar design reflected ideological leanings st • 1 world- Britain- Garden City planning resurgence- New Towns Act 1946 redevelops UK cities • The US-Suburbanization and Brutalism o Suburbs expand outside major cities o Promotes capitalism – new furniture etc. o Supported by Government programs • Brutalism in public buildings- mix of fundamentalism and rationalism o Exclusive use of concrete as building material o Authoritative, defensive in form, cheap (MacKimmie, EDUC) o Built in the city centers because that’s where they expected bombs to hit o People were encouraged to build bunkers, concrete in backyards • The Second World- USSR and socialist realism o USSR, collectivization, no private ownership, state controls everything o Soviet leaders realized power of architects, build spaces that express their ideology o Live the way we think • Ideal Soviet City o Max. 200,000 people, factory workers exchange with farm workers depending on need, circular belts with collective space at the center, then residential, then industry, then agriculture • Magnitogorsk- socialist realism, social functionalism, steel producing city o Planned solely on the laws of social hygiene and economy o Forced communality of residents, dehumanizing scale, monumental, stark aesthetics, poor living conditions • Third World- battleground for ideological supremacy o Two building projects as hybrid of 1 and 2 world • Chandgarh 1951- Le Corbusier- noted brutalist architect o Built to human scale, no tall buildings o Promoted communality, no statues allowed o Master plan based on human body- head= capitol, heart= center sector, lungs= open green space, intellect= cultural education, circulatory= roads, viscera= industrial • Brasilia 1960- Oscar Niemeyer, socialist architect, administrative center for new government in Brazil, ,also brutalist o Planned to human scale, massive avenues and boulevards, like those in China and USSR, too wide, overwhelming, unused • The World War Era- 1914-1945 • Mass casualties • WWI 1914-1919- 17 million (10 million military, 7 civilian) • WWII 1939-1945- 50-80 million (22-25 million military, 38-55 civilian) • Ethnic cleansing/genocide, USSR 1929-1939 4 million, Sino Japanese War 1937-1945 20 million Chinese Civilians, Holocaust 1939-1945 7 million, Bengal famine 1943- 1.5-4 million • Empires that collapsed: Habsburgs (Austria-Hungary), Qing Dynasty z9China), Ottomans (turkey), Romonov Tsars (Russia) • New ideologies: fascism and communist threat to constitutional democracies • Economic depression 1920s-1930s- in 1945 a new global balance of power and economic system • The political crisis of the new imperialism 1870s-1910a o 1914 80% of world under political Europe, US, and Japan ex. Empires- Rising powers= Germany, Japan, USA o Pressures of Britain, France, Russia, Austria-Hungary • France and Germany Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871- German unification, loss of Alsace Lorraine • Moroccan Crisis 1906-1911 • Balkans, Eastern Europe- Greece 1820a, Serbia 1835, 1878, Bulgaria 1878, 1909, Montenegro 1809, Austrian conquest of Bosnia, Serbs and young Turks and Russians • French Indochina 1870s- Sino Japanese War 1894-95- Korea • Russian occupation of Manchuria and Chinese East Railway 1891-1901 • Spanish American war 1898, US into the pacific • Boxer Rebellion 1900- Chinese monarchy’s last stand, defeated • Russo-Japanese war 1904-1905 • Mostly about strong states fighting each other over who is going to control weak states  Imperial rivalry, wars don’t happen in either home country, but in the area argued over • Triple Power Alliance 1882- Germany, Austria, Italy • Triple Entente- Russia, Britain, France 1907 • Power vacuum in colonized world • The ideology of empire project power, rank peoples, bending diplomacy’s moral norms ex. Belgian Congo o Justification, rational thought, aggressive, expansive, imperial ideology • Nationalism- spread of universal suffrage and the politics of patriotism o Universal public education , language, culture, history o Europe’s socialists and decision for war • Militarism- most imperial leaders had served in the military o Military as institutional support for other aspects of imperial society: science, industrial technology, patriotic indoctrination (universal conscription) o Military makes leaders who aren’t pacifists • WWI- most fighting in Europe- another war built into it o Germany, Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire vs. Britain, France, Russia (Italy back and forth) o Cause Gabrilo Princep in Sarajevo- imperial dispute, nationalists Serbs mistreatment in Bosnia vs. imperialist Hapsburgs= Assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand= Austria declares war on Serbia, all other alliances brought in o US stays out until 1917 o Initially people think it will be done quickly o Eastern Front= movement back and forth of armies o Russia government collapses, Germany gains o West= stalemate, new military technology, machine gun, poison gas, cannons and artillery o Biggest casualties in large powers  France loses ¼ of fighting men= lost generation o Soldiers fight because they wanted to or conscription/coercion • Domestic populations didn’t want to fight anymore • Germans lose Schlieffen plan, war of attrition, large, month-long battles • Americans enter 1917- de facto alliance with Britain, send roughly 1 million to Western Europe that Germany can’t compete with, Britain also has colonies to draw from • Big Themes- A world at war 1914-1945 o The underlying conflicts of the rise of the west, imperialism and industrialization o Economic- massive discontent of a winner take all economy in a world of formally free competitors o Popular politics- the gap between popular unrest and the accommodation of liberal constitutionalism o Diplomatic international politics- an unstable, more integrated political order • Outcomes: o The peace of 1945, lasted until 1990 o Welfare states- government as counterweight to capital o A human rights revolution (the emancipation of women and ethnic minorities), gradual commission to full citizenship o A new binary global political order (the Cold War) • Peasant revolutions as examples of imperial instability, popular unrest and economic inequality- Russia • Background to revolution nd o Autocracy- no room for civil society debate, different than 2 wave revolutionary societies o Tsarist Russia’s economics, autocratic modernization o Emancipation 1861 o Export agriculture (grain) th o Rapid industrialization after 1900, output 2x 1900-1913, 5 largest industrial producer in the world o Military power- navy rail roads, modern army o STRESS AND PROTEST  High cost of modernization, heavy taxes on peasantry (economic)  Maximum exploitation in factories, 12 hour days, low wages, no rights for labour, strikes and unions were illegal  Popular/domestic politics- political repression 1905, Bloody Sunday, massacre of workers in St. Petersburg by government troops  Imperial/international Politics, military defeat, Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905  Entry into WWI 1914, massive defeats, German Invasion • Revolution 1917 o Disintegration of Tsar’s Army o Reliance on police and army to suppress protest o Mutinies of 1917, overthrow of Tsar o Chaos of revolutionary society o Duma, provisional government in Moscow, Liberal democracy, keep fighting the war, no change to Russian society o Soviets (councils) grassroots self-governing bodies in factories and farms challenged the provisional government in Moscow. o Russian “social democratic” factions, supporters of broader revolution o Mensheviks, Bolsheviks o Bolsheviks won bloody (5-9 million killed) civil war 1918-1921, included 100,000 foreign troops sent to support Tsarist faction • Communism- Ideas of the Bolsheviks o Karl Marx, 1818-1883, theory of history and historical stages- the means of production and the labor theory of value • From feudalism to capitalism o Feudalism- labor bound to land, landlord controlled means of production, valued that control over more money and commerce o Capitalism- alienating things from their natural relationships, land, material goods, human labor and heart capitalists profited by exploitation theft of “surplus value” of labour • Capitalism to communism o Industrialization as last stage of capitalism level, proletariat as the revolutionary vanguard into the next stage= communism  Communism= collective ownership of means of production • From Lenin to Stalin 1921-1924 o 1921 New economic program- Lenin relaxed state control of economy, private property and small businesses. Big industries still government owned o Lenin died in 1924, no Marxist blueprint for party run dictatorship of peasant society o Josef Stalin- peasant from caucuses, General Secretary of the Communist Party 1924, won power struggle by 1927, struggle against rivals • Stalin’s socialism in one country o 5 year plan, skip over stages of historical change from feudalism to communism from agriculture to heavy industry o Collectivization of agriculture o Rapid industrialization o Oppression of workforce, no strikes, consumer incentives • USSR industrial production > 14%/year in 1930s…went from 15 to 3 most electricity o Arrest and deportation to “gulag” slave labor on state projects, 12 million arrested  A dictatorship in the name of the people • 1910-1920 1-2 million people die, Mexico agricultural, > illiteracy and poverty, caste system, oppressed peoples, 1910 100 million acres owned by US investors • Diaz- ruled roughly 35 years, deals with foreign investors kept him in power- elections fraud, Francisco Madeira-a contender clear that he won, expelled, flees, comes back, takes power, assassinated • Battle between nationalists and popularists • 1920- Alvaro Obregon?, constitutionalist and stabilization- some rights for workers • China- Qing Dynasty overthrown 1911, Sun Yatsen, oppression of peasantry, foreign domination of economy, unstable government, 1911-1949 Mao Zedong and communists o Mao revolution, state of mind, cultural revolution, massive change of the people, liberate Chinese from oppression and throw out the foreigners o Authoritarian control state, rules in the name of the people • Looking for a peace settlement, @imperial centers (great powers) o Germany losing WWI, wants a peace that returns things to how they were o Britain and France- want to punish Germany, never wants to see war again, stability • Peace without victory 1917, create stability- never see revolution o Treaty/Peace of Versailles 1919, international stability o “rights of nations” mankind is looking now for freedom of life, not for equipoises of power” o Anti-colonial- national self-determination and sovereignty to all states- seems a way out of trap the powers put themselves in • A World at War: 1914-1945 o Each major actor outlines their plans o Americans Woodrow Wilson 14 point plan- draft document for Treaty of Versailles, WWI= war for democracy, end all wars, range of policies to create peace o System to reduce likelihood of war- arms reduction, free trade (imperial system promotes economic rivalry) • Resolution of WWI o No more secret treaties/deals, national self-determinationWilson advocates anti-imperialist message in Europe- League of Nations UN, not a world government but a world forum for solving conflict, enforce the rest of the 14 points • Bolsheviks- peace without victory, spread of revolution, proletariat vs. bourgeoisie, scares western societies • Wilson, 14 points very popular, Germany hopes 14 points will return to pre-war status quo • Russia not part of Treaty of Versailles • Italy and japan, not huge bargaining power in Versailles • Austria-Hungary, Turkey, even less say, lost more than Germany • Deal= Britain, France, America with Germany taking what they can get • Treaty of Versailles- peace for France and Britain with Wilsonian veneer o Germany- reparations, give back territory won in Franco-Prussian war and give back Eastern land (Poland) o New countries as a result of the treaty: Czech Republic, Yugoslavia o No promotion of self-determination outside of Europe • Ottoman Empire Middle East, on losing side of WWI, Treaty of Sevres 1920 and Turkish War of Independence 1919-1922 • Major powers thought they could prevent war by weakening Germany through the Treaty of Versailles o Eastern Europe collapse of Tsar and defeat of Germany  New self-governing nations, problem if old countries tried to reclaim old territory • Asia- maintain old empires, accommodate new ones, Japan, US • Quarantine Russian Revolution • Efforts at disarmament- Washington Naval Conference • League of Nations as linchpin of the peace o US refuses to ratify Treaty of Versailles, US weary of League of Nations- looks like the same thing that will entangle US in another world war- regret of being involved in WWI- without US to solidify- the League is already weakened • Treaty doesn’t take economic depression into account, Germany never gets back to full employment that they were at during WWI, hyperinflation in Germany, printing $ • Britain industrial sector no longer cutting edge, feeling effects, plagued by costs of empire, new rivals of system, India most imports from Britain, India opens up, less than ½ from Britain (hurts Britain) • US 1920s consumerism rapid, states to fall apart, financial panic o 25% unemployment, GDP < 1/3 • Rice price < 50% 1929, Chile cut exports by 80% • Opportunities for economic diversification • 1930s massive economic suffering • New republics carved out of Versailles= new democracies but soon dictatorship prominent • Before 1914 all empires, not used to democracy, not confident o Very fragile countries, how to create a sense of nationalism, rise of anti-Semitism, no desire to protect minority rights • Dictatorships restore tradition, centralization of power, transformation of society • Weakening of democracy, rise of Fascism o State of mind, restore traditions, conservative transforming revolution. Romanticised view of politics, bold thinkers  Hitler “freeing you from constraints • Italy Mussolini- transforms state, coined Fascism, state intervention, persecuting political and cultural minorities • Hitler: communists, socialists, Jews, outside forces= enemy. Mobilize the masses, revive economies, massive military spending • 1938 50% budget on military, unemployment fell, Nazis hold some seats in Parliament, abolish Reichstag, with secret police • East Asia- decline of China, rise of japan (better able to hold off western imperialism o 1920s, Japan had grievances with the west o Racial equality taken out of league of nations o USA ban Japanese from country, unequal treatment o Japan also experiences great depression o Turn to authoritarianism o Shintoism prominent o Builds up military, push to expand power o 1930s invades Manchuria (China) o Declining power of European empires, weakening and their spheres of influence shrinking (US and Japan increasing) • British Empire, The Jewel and the Crown (India)= rebellions/ independence initiatives • Mohandas Ghandi 1869-1948 large influence, minority rights, lawyer in South Africa, equality, ethic of simplicity, Spartan lifestyle, rejection of consumer capitalist market economy o British trade policy destroyed Indian industry, 1920/30= independence movement to boycott British products/industry o Anti-colonial struggle • South Africa, Selbourne Memorandum, 1910, Boers make peace with British, resentment racial o The Rand Rebellion, 1922, workers of the world unite for a White South Africa o Apartheid and segregation- racial caste system, the African National Congress 1923 Ghandian demand for inclusion and question of cooperation • Latin American, Getulio Vargas, Brazil, not fascist but authoritarian o Depression, drive to build own industry, defend own economy populist politics o Corporatism- all interests combined to strengthen the state o The old republic, rep. a deal between 2 agricultural provinces, little democracy o Decline in price of coffee o 1920s Vargas represented the masses, the outsiders, leaders of a coup, declares himself dictator, 1930-1954 o Corporatist, increase nationalism, create civil liberties, military against rival parties and politicians
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