History 307 – Final Notes – Chapter 8-11. 20 Century 1. 2. 3. 4.
Architecture and Urban Planning Lecture – Nov 15
- Expressions of change in the 20 Century. Bad conditions in the 19 Century cities,
however science innovations changed how we thought cities should be. Sewers were a
new invention. Diseases like cholera and typhoid an issue before due to waste water.
- Environmental Determinism: the assumption that the environment affect’s people’s
behavior. Therefore, build better environments, get better people. Architects and
planners design those better environments. Nature vs. Nurture Darwin idea.
- Utopian Cities: Garden City and City Beautiful. – Came out of idea humans are good by
nature and includes a lot of ornamentation. Utopian believers think people will take care
of everything if it is nice and in place.
- Garden City: Ebenezer Howard. Radical design, increased contact with nature to
mitigate problems of urbanization. City Beautiful: The White City. Presented at Chicago
World Fair, 1893. Presented bright white, sterile urban environment. Less natural than
Garden City – nature came in form of designed parks. Both cities prized form over
- Three major design movements that reflected the changes in uses of architecture:
Futurism, Functionalism, and Rationalism.
- Futurism: 1909 Marinetti, a youth movement that emphasized industry and
mechanization. Complacency killed people’s creativity. Advocated violence to take apart
traditions, linked to the rise of fascism. Marinetti designs futurist city: machines and
industry negate labor in the future. Highly stylized, but not ornamental. Cha Citta Nuova.
Post WWI level of mechanization scared people. Futurism fades, but concepts picked up
by later movements.
- Functionalism: ornamentation detracts from function. Louis Sullivan “form follows
function” Chicago design. Design without precedent. Taught at Bauhaus School in Berlin.
“Supermodel” architects from here. Ideal functionalistic city: High Rise City (Ludwig
- Rationalism: Reason alone solves modern problems. Rationalists use information from
many sources to address site issues. Functionalism and Rationalism taught as main
aesthetics at Bauhaus school. Rationalism had more complex aesthetics than
Functionalism, but still very minimalistic. Don’t feel like the city overwhelms you, but you
are a part of the city.
- Architects and planners as social engineers caught the attention of politicians. Nazis
shut down Bauhaus school for socialist and communist leanings. Albert Speer, Nazi
architect. USSR also adopted Socialist Realism in their architecture.
- 1937 Paris Expedition. Nazi building facing socialist realist building from USSR.
- The 30’s put a wedge in global relationships, a lot happening on world stage. - WWII halted much design. Its end led to the start of the Cold War. Splits 1 , 2 , and 3 nd rd
World countries. Postwar design reflects ideological leanings. 1 World capitalist
democratic, 2 World are communist/socialist countries, 3 world is battleground for
- 1 world. Britain: Garden City planning resurgence. New Towns Act 1946 – redevelop
UK cities. The US and Canada: Suburbanization and Brutalism. Suburbs expand outside
major cities – promotes capitalism, supported by government programs. Suburbanization
boosts capitalism and consumerism. Brutalism in public building: Brutalism is a mix of
fundamentalism and rationalism: exclusive use of concrete as building material –
Authoritative and defensive in form.
- Second World: USSR and Socialist Realism. USSR: collectivization, no private
ownership, state controls everything. Soviet leaders realized the power of architects and
planner to build spaces that express their ideology. Ideal of Soviet City: Max of 20,000
people, factory workers exchange with farm workers depending on need. Circular belts
with collective space in the center, then residential, then industry, then agriculture.
- Socialist Realism example city of Magnitogorsk. Planned “solely by the laws of social
hygiene and economy.” Forced communality of residents, dehumanizing scale
monumental. Stark aesthetics, bad living conditions. Huge buildings, extreme
- Third World: Battleground for supremacy. Two building projects as hybrid of 1 and 2 st nd
world design initiatives. Chandigarh, India and Brasilia, Brazil. Chandigarh: built to
human scale, no tall buildings. Promoted communality, but no statues allowed. Master
plan based on the human body. Sectioning the city was reaction to modern urbanization.
Brasilia: Oscar Niemeyers designed, socialist architect. Administrative center for new
government in Brazil. Also Brutalist aesthetic, less authoritarian. Planned for human
scale, but with massive avenues and boulevards. Like those in China and the USSR.
Too wide, overwhelming, unused.
November 18 Lecture – The World War Era
- WW Era: 1914-45. Casualties: WWI (1914-1919): 17 million killed. WWII (1939-45): 50-
80 million killed. Ethnic cleansing/genocide: Armenia, Soviet Union, Sino-Japanese War,
Holocaust, Bengal Famine.
- Changing borders: Revolutions in Mexico (1910-20), China (1911, 1949), Russia (1919-
1922), India (1920s-47), and Turkey (1921). Empires that collapsed: Habsburgs,
Hoherizollerns, Qing, Ottomans, Romanov Tsars.
- New ideologies: fascism and communism and threat to constitutional democracies.
Economic depression (1920s-30s). In 1945: A new global balance of power and
- The political crises of the new imperialism (1870s-1910s).
- In 1914, 80% of world under political control of Europe, US, and Japan i.e. in empires.
Rising powers: Germany, Japan, US. Pressures on Austria-Hungary, Britain, France,
Russia. - Flashpoints: France & Germany. Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). Moroccan Crises in
1906 & 1911. Balkans, Eastern Europe: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, Austrian
conquest of Bosnia, Serbs, Turks and Russians. East Asia: French Indochina (1870s),
Sino-Japanese War (Korea, 1894-95), Russian occupation of Manchuria and Chinese
Eastern Railway, Spanish-American War, Boxer Rebellion, Russo-Japanese War.
- Lots of war on the edge of political empires. Mostly about 2 strong states fighting over
- The logic of alliances: Major Power Alliances: Triple Alliance in 1882, Triple Entente in
1907. Major Powers rivalries and the political consequences of the great divergence:
power vacuum in colonized world. The ideology empire: project power, rank peoples,
bending diplomacy’s moral norms. E.g. The Belgian Congo.
- Other ideological causes: 1. Nationalism: the spread of universal suffrage and the
politics of patriotism. Universal public education, language, culture, history. Europe’s
socialists and the decision for war. 2. Militarism. Most imperial leaders had served in
military. Military as institutional support for other aspects of imperial society: science,
industrial technology, patriotic indoctrination (universal conscription).
- WWI: the seeds of WW2. Causes: Gabrilio Princep in Sarajevo, 1914. Empires,
nationalism, military buildup. Conduct of the war: rapid movement in Eastern Europe,
slugfest and stalemate in Western Europe. Trenches and the difficulty of overcoming
fixed defenses – machine guns, gas, artillery, barbed wire. Magnitude of scale: multi-
million man armies, multi-million causalities. Soldiers didn’t always fight because they
wanted to. Why did Central powers lose? Two front war for the continental powers,
Schlieffen plan and US entry on the side of the Allies (Entente) in 1917; industrial and
colonial resources of the allies.
- A lot of these countries were on the verge of war anyways, and this was the spark that
set it off.
November 19 Notes: Revolutions from 1910-1930s
- Peasant Revolutions, Treaty of Versailles, Great Depression, and rise of fascism.
- Big themes 1914-1945 – both World Wars. The manifestation of underlying conflicts of
the rise of the west, imperialism, and industrialization.
- Economic: the discontent of a winner-takes-all economy in a world of formally free
competitors. Popular politics: the gap between popular unrest and the accommodation of
liberal constitutionalism. Diplomatic international politics: an unstable, more integrated
- Outcomes: the peace of 1945 (until 1990). Welfare states (government as counterweight
to capital). A human rights revolution (emancipation of women and ethnic minorities). A
new binary global political order.
- Peasant revolutions as examples of imperial instability, popular unrest, and economic
inequality. The example of Russia. Autocracy in Russia: no room for civil society debate,
different than 2 wave revolutionary societies. Tsarist Russia’s economics, autocratic
modernization: emancipation of serfs, export/agriculture, rapid industrialization after 1900, and output doubled 1900-1913. 5 Largest in 1914. This leads to increased
- Stress and Protest: economics high costs of modernization, heavy taxes on peasantry.
Maximum exploitation in factories. No rights for labor, strikes and unions illegal.
Popular/domestic politics: political repression: 1905 Bloody Sunday, massacre of
workers in St. Petersburg by government troops. Imperial/international politics: military
defeat Russo-Japanese war, and entry into WWI.
- 1917 Revolution (Bolsheviks vs. Mensheviks): The disintegration of the Tsar’s army.
Chaos of revolutionary society. Duma, provisional government in Moscow. Liberal
democracy, keep fighting the war, no changes to Russian society. Soviets (councils) self-
governing bodies in factories and farms. Challenged provisional government in Moscow.
Russian “Social Democratic” factions, supporters of broader revolutions. The Bolsheviks
more radical with their revolutionary agenda (they win). Mensheviks: provisional
government supporters. Bolsheviks (Lenin) empower the people first. Mensheviks
empower the nation first.
- Communism: ideas of the Bolsheviks. Karl Marx: a theory of history and historical
stages: the means of production and the labor theory of value.
- Feudalism: labor bound land, landlords controlled means of production, valued that
control over more money and commerce.
- Capitalism: “alienating” things from their natural relationships: land, material goods,
human labor. At heart, capitalists profited by exploitation, or theft, or “surplus value” of
- Industrialization as last stage of capitalist development, proletariats as the revolutionary
vanguard into next stage: communism.
- Communism: collective ownership of the means of production and the emancipation of
the individual through the end of alienation.
- From Lenin to Stalin (1921-24): New Economic Program: relaxed state control of
economy, private property, and small businesses. Lenin dies, Stalin steps in. (Opposed
by Trotsky). Stalin’s “socialism in one country.” Five Year Plan to modernize. Reversal of
the New Economic Program. Collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization.
Oppression of the workforce: no strikes, consumer incentives: arrest and deportation to
“gulag” slave labor on state projects. A dictatorship in the name of people.
- Mexico Revolutions from 1910-1920. Not too different from Russia. Very agricultural
place, racism prevalent, not many privately owned lands. Caught in a cycle of foreign
debt. Porfirio Diaz: a lot of deals with foreign investors, didn’t help unrest, fake elections,
and de facto dictatorship. Leads to mass protest after fraudulent election where Madero
should’ve won. Civil War breaks out, US troops intervening. Populists and Nationalists.
Obregon (1920) allows land reform, assists land ownership. Dictorial authorities for the
- China: overthrowing Qing Dynasty. Causes: long-term decline of China to foreign powers
and ensuing impoverishment of Chinese people. Sun Yat Sen leader of the revolution.
Bad post-revolutionary affects: instability, warlords, monarchists, and republicans. Long civil war ending in 1949. Mao Zedong communist rising. Looked at Russian example.
Revolution as ideology and culture, “permanent revolution.” Nationalism and populism.
- Germany wants WWI to end “status quo antebellum.” Britain and France do not want to
stand for this. Germany shouldn’t start war again. Lenin and Bolsheviks signed separate
treaty with Germany that conceded territory in exchange for peace. Woodrow Wilson:
“peace without victory.”
November 22 Notes: WWII Causes & Details
- Resolutions of WWI: America: Woodrow Wilson (14 Points). Arms reductions, free trade:
“open covenants of peace, openly arrived at”. National self-determination, break up
empires, The League of Nations. The significance? Liberal ideals, refuting the
Bolsheviks. Britain and France: punish Germany and prevent it from waging another war
in Europe. Georges Clemenceau, French premier: “God gave us 10 commandments and
we broke them, Woodrow gave us 14 points…we’ll see.” Germany liked the 14 points,
returned to post-war status quo. Russia: in revolution, and wanted to export it, but first
win civil war. Other powers: Italy and Japan, allies with little say. Austria-Hungary,
enemies with little say.
- The Treaty of Versailles, 1919. A peace for Britain and France with a Wilsonian veneer.
Harsher terms for Germany “war guilt, reparations, territorial concessions, limitations of
re-arming. Dismantling the eastern European empires in the name of self-determination.
The origins of the Middle East. The Treaty of Sevres 1920 and the Turkish wars of
- The Versailles Treaty and the plan to avoid another war… “Versailles system.” To
weaken Germany with control by France and Britain. Breakup certain powers in new
self-governing nations (Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary). In Asia: maintain
old empire and accommodate new ones. Quarantine the Russian Revolution.
Washington Naval Conference: effort at dis-arment. The League of Nations as linchpin
for the peace.
- Economic stagnation: Europe’s weak recovery from WWI. Germany has high inflation
and fiat currency. France invades and takes taxes until debt is paid. Britain has an aging
industrial system – overseas loans and investment at home helps with this. The United
States has a financial panic and weak consumer demands. In the developing world,
crisis is worst within most integrated economies. More opportunities for economic
- The weakness of democracies in post-1919 Europe. Replacement of democracy with
dictatorships. Europe is not confident with self-governance, used to empires, so a
dictator seems natural. Also a fear of communism led to this as well. The distrust of the
elites: debate of how parliaments interfere in the workplace alienated landlords and their
- Fascism in Europe: a more state-of-mind rather than systemic conjugation. Us