Study Guides (238,073)
Canada (114,907)
History (27)
HTST 383 (1)

HTST 383 Midterm Prep Notes

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Calgary
HTST 383
Michael Zekulin

February 24 -Midterm Review Session- Connor Sweazy Four Topics: Germany and Berlin, Korean War, Malayan Crisis, Early Cold War Intelligence Textbook- main argument= post-revisionist school- soviets and the Americans were both to blame*, in-between analysis, textbook moves away from the dichotomy of war-international aspect. Against containment- if you talk about that, make sure to reference text • Germany and Berlin: Germany towards the end of the second world war was in shambles, economic catastrophe, completely wrecked from the war, no industrial capacity, virtually no military or economy. Mass devastation and destruction (mostly all of Europe was in this state), the cold war for the longest time was the center of the cold war • International talks about Germany and Berlin towards the end of the war- Key conferences: o Yalta Feb 1945- war was still going on, decided to decide later, the big three… o Potsdam July 1945: the war in Europe is over, after Yalta, work out more of the details, make sure that Germany could still get its food supply, remain in the occupied zone- Potsdam compared to Yalta- Roosevelt to Truman, switched from Churchill to Atlee- key diplomatic shift. o Yalta=cooperation, Postdam=deal with the fact that the Soviets took over most of Germany, designate 4 military occupation zones- temporary solution, a lot to do from there on o State of Germany in the occupation zones- there were many powers… Japan: occupied by a single power. Russia and France wanted reparations, disarmament, industrialization, de-Nazification, decrease German threat • Crisis in Turkey, Crisis in Greece-civil war vs. communists, Iran Crisis-WWII 1942- Britain and US invaded Iran to supply Russia • Long Telegram –George Keenan- the soviets have a dangerous ideology that will come in contact with the US- they need to become more aggressive and stop cooperating with the USSR- largely influenced by the idea of appeasement and how it failed after Munich Crisis • The Iron Curtain Speech- Winston Churchill • Crisis in Greece and Turkish- British economy terrible • Americans- Truman Doctrine 1947- domino theory, if one state falls to communism, it will spread to other states and they will fall under the influence. Once it gets going you can’t stop it. The Soviet influence in Germany* in the American eyes they feel it is dangerous and threatening for the Soviets to control Germany- communists take over where it is not economically/socially sound • In order to help Germany, the US has to reconstruct and rebuild German infrastructure and economy the Marshall Plan June 1947- influenced by what was going on in Greece and Turkey, also Germany • Germany coming back to the center issues of the Cold War- the Berlin Wall, the fall of the Berlin wall • Pg. 44 the Marshall Plan reflected the American belief that rebuilding the European economy was more important that remaining cooperation with the Soviets • Pg 45 the Marshall plan was the decisive catalyst for the division of Europe • Soviet response- Marshall plan compared to the Truman doctrine- both signs of looming capitalist threat. Marshall plan= great threat to the soviets even though they were offered they did not accept. Responded with their own initiatives: the Molotov Plan July 1947 was their economic equivalent. Ideological institutions created to separate Europe! Multiple military coups happening after the Marshall plan, really solidified their place and their satellites • Marshall plan= economic sword of the Truman doctrine, military sword= NATO 1949 • Soviet Equivalent of NATO= Warsaw Pact • Europe is continually separating into two blocs* very crucial • West Germany joins NATO 1952 • Germany towards the beginning of the cold war in relation to nation hood- they did not stay united, 4 occupation zones, Western zones were unified and the same was done in the east until they two were established as separate countries • Marshall Plan support in the West- initiative taken 1948= strong economy, strong currency- try to reorganize the currency in west Germany- the soviets aren’t very happy about his because they are leaving East Germany out of it- they counterfeit large amounts of Western currency and begin to establish their own currency • The Berlin Blockade June 1948- the Berlin Airlift is successful, the Soviets didn’t shoot all the planes down because the planes flew upon the agreed upon air corridors in Berlin, massive amounts of planes landing one after the other. Significance in relation to Germany and the state of the cold war as a whole: lasted 11 months, was crazy successful in maintaining Berlin and avoiding starvation- showed the west’s power and determination over Germany over the Soviet attempt • Pg.59 berlin became an island of resistance to communism… Prevent spread of communism as a political force • If you are going to talk about Germany you HAVE to talk about the Berlin Blockade • 1950s economy of Berlin and Western Germany soars and does really well, reason why the marshall plan and economic assistance is so crucial • Berlin Blockade ends= creation of two states, west Germany and east Germany- still have to deal with the fact that Germany doesn’t really have a military- good or bad? Two main powers of the UN who have a big problem with rearming Germany= France and Soviets. Americans had to deal with both of those sides. Huge turning event about deciding whether or not Germany should be rearmed= Korean War 1950* represented the fear the soviets were intent on possibly taking over the world= big catalyst that some military contribution from west Germany to help defense. France- not very happy about that, but realize better economic/military integration for Europe as a whole- European coal and steel committee, European defense committee • 1960s- Big Crisis= The Berlin Wall. East Germans fleeing from east Germany to west Germany-bad for ideological reasons, western economy is doing so much better- Kruschev decides to erect a wall to prevent crossover between East and West. • Pg 158/159 the 1950s exodus represented a threat to soviet ideology because essentially Germans were voting with their feet • Conclusions: Germany and Berlin were the center of the Cold War from the beginning, if Soviets won, the west part of Germany would be a part of the domino theory- the key to everything. Difficult to say that the entire cold war centered around Europe, but you could say that Germany and Europe were at the heart of the early cold war. If you use any of these quotes- cite Young and Kent!!! As much as you can reference the book, do it Reference outside historians if you can, you won’t be penalized for not referencing outside sources NSC 68- book discusses how containment is a bad thing Soviet interpretations vs. American interpretations, Comparing in context! The wider picture* George Keenan, Truman Doctrine and covert operations- stop the communists from coming to power! Malayan Emergency 1948-60 • Malaya= owned by British, during WWII Japanese invaded and took it over. Japanese were fighting with Malayan natives against the Japanese. Same situation happening in Korea, Dutch East Indies (so much of the Dutch infrastructure was destroyed) • Why is it an Emergency? What happened?- British imperialists on one side- on the other side the Malayan Communist Party who become the Malayan national liberation army- fighting against the British imperialists. 1948 British declare a state of Emergency • One of the big examples of a counter-insurgency movement* and the fact that it was a success • How did the British successfully deal with the Malayan Emergency?- communist group rising up, first phase- a lot of police action- mainly the police and small british admin trying to enforce things, violence is slowly rising (before 1948), Chinese communists becoming more and more powerful. • Director of Operations: Sir Harold Briggs- initiates the Briggs Plan: got more british intelligence on the guerillas, lesssons on the communists, trying to find out who they are, 3 big things happened with the plan= resettlement into new villages under government administration- moved away from the jungles a
More Less

Related notes for HTST 383

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.