KNES 260 Final: Digestive study guide
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Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KNES 260
Professor
Carol Anne Gibbons Kroeker

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KNES 260 – Digestive Physiology Unit Study Guide Chapter 24 (with a bit from Chapter 25) - 16 Questions for this section The Highlight Reel (things to focus on): Chapter 24: • The enzymes and final products of carbohydrate digestion • The enzymes and final products of protein digestion • The enzymes and final products of fat digestion • The hormones involved in digestion • The structures of the alimentary canal and accessory organs • Functions / secretions of the liver and pancreas • Main functions of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine Do NOT focus on gastro-intestinal diseases – the only ones to know are: gallstones, acid reflux, ulcers, and cirrhosis Study Questions: What enzyme digests starch? 1. Amylase: • From salivary glands — acts in mouth (starts breaking down in mouth) • From pancreas — acts in small intestine 2. Lactase: • From small intestine — acts in small intestine 3. Maltase: • From small intestine — acts in small intestine • Digestion starts in mouth, inactivated in stomach, reactivated in small intestine Name the enzymes used in protein digestion. 1. Pepsin: • Starts in stomach • breaks down proteins to polypeptides • stops working in small intestine • triggers release of Trypsin from pancreas 2. Trypsin/Chymotrypsin: • From pancreas — acts in small intestine 3. Carboxypepstdase: • From pancreas — acts in small intestine • breaks down polypeptides to dipeptides 4. Aminopeptidase: • From pancreas — acts in small intestine • break down polypeptides to dipeptides 5. Dipeptidases: • From small intestine • breaks down dipeptides to amino acids Where does protein digestion begin? Where does starch digestion begin? Protein: in the stomach Starch: in the mouth What enzyme digests fats? 1. Lipase: • From pancreas — acts in small intestine • Bile works as an emulsifier NOT an enzyme, to break down fat into smaller chunks — to increase surface area What are the final products in starch digestion? Protein digestion? Fat digestion? Starch Digestion: glucose Protein Digestion: amino acids Fat Digestion: • Glycerol — goes into blood • Fatty Acids — goes into lymph, then into blood How are fatty acids absorbed into the blood? They go into lymph then are sent into the blood What does bile do and why is this advantageous? 1. helps emulsify fat to prepare it for digestion 2. bile salts surround fatty acids called a micelle, for protection of fatty acids when they are unstable and not ready to absorb Where do most digestive enzymes come from? The Pancreas Where does most digestion occur? The small intestine Where does most of the absorption occur? the small intestine Why does the pancreas secrete bicarbonate? To neutralize acidic environment What is secreted from the pancreas? 1. Amylase (digestion of carbohydrates) 2. Trypsin/Chymotrypsin, Carboxypepstdase, Aminopeptidase (digestion of proteins) 3. Lipase (digestion of fat) 4. Nucleases (digestion of nucleic acids) 5. Bicarbonate (neutralizes stomach acid) 6. Insulin (pre-absorptive state, affects absorption of amino acids, sugars, etc) 7. Glucagon (post-absorptive state) Name three functions of the liver. • makes bile • metabolic processing of major nutrients • detoxifies and degrades body wastes, hormones, drugs, foreign compounds • synthesizes plasma proteins • stores glycogen, fats, iron, copper, vitamins, proteins. • makes clotting factors • activates vitamin D • removes bacteria and worn out RBCs • excretes cholesterol and bilirubin(gives yellow colour in jaundice) What structures increase surface area in the digestive tract? The villi and microvilli increase surface area for absorption the mout
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