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Study Guide

KNES 259 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Posterior Longitudinal Ligament, Anterior Longitudinal Ligament, Hinge Joint
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17 Pages
110 Views
Fall 2016

Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KNES 259
Professor
Ronald Reed Ferber
Study Guide
Midterm

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UofC
KNES 259
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Anatomical Terminology & Planes
Regional Anatomy
Regions of the body include the:
ohead/neck
oUpper limb (extremity)
oThorax, back, abdomen
oPelvis, perineum
oLower limb (extremity)
**Anatomical Position
Everything facing forward
oPalms supinated
oAnkles dorsiflexed and toes facing forward
Anatomical planes
o3 Major ones are all 90° to each other
oSagittal planes run anterior to posterior
The important one is the midsagittal-plane (or median) which divides a
body into the left and right halves
oCoronal (or frontal) planes divide anterior and posterior
oHorizontal (or transverse) planes divide the superior and inferior aspects of the
body
**Important terms:
Note that dorsal has two possible definitions
Medial = towards the midline
Lateral = away from the midline
Proximal = towards the centre/trunk of the body
Distal = away from the centre/trunk of the body
Superior = above
Inferior = below
Superficial
Deep
Anterior = the front of the body
Posterior = back of the body
Ventral = another word for Anterior
Dorsal = another word for Posterior (back of body)
Cranial = towards the head
Caudal = towards the tail (or butt for humans)
Dorsal = a surface facing superiorly (up)
Palmar/Plantar = a surface facing inferiorly (down)
Axes of Rotation
Flexion-Extension
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Rotates on Medial-Lateral (ML) axis
Motion is parallel to the sagittal plane
Flexion is decreasing the angle between two segments, extension is increasing the angle
Internal/External Rotation
Rotates about the superior-inferior axis
Movement is parallel to the transverse plane
Internal can also be referred to as medial rotation and external as lateral rotation
Teacher’s example: Similar to a door opening. Both rotate on the superior-inferior axis
(hinges) and move parallel to the transverse plane (the floor)
Abduction-Adduction
Rotates on the Anterior-Posterior (AP) Axis
Moves parallel to the frontal plane
Abduction is moving away from the midline, Adduction involves “adding” the body part
back toward the midline
Circumduction
Any combination of two or more of the above types of movement
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Description
UofC KNES 259 MIDTERM EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at oneclass.com Anatomical Terminology & Planes Regional Anatomy  Regions of the body include the: o head/neck o Upper limb (extremity) o Thorax, back, abdomen o Pelvis, perineum o Lower limb (extremity) **Anatomical Position  Everything facing forward o Palms supinated o Ankles dorsiflexed and toes facing forward  Anatomical planes o 3 Major ones are all 90° to each other o Sagittal planes run anterior to posterior  The important one is the midsagittal-plane (or median) which divides a body into the left and right halves o Coronal (or frontal) planes divide anterior and posterior o Horizontal (or transverse) planes divide the superior and inferior aspects of the body **Important terms: Note that dorsal has two possible definitions  Medial = towards the midline  Lateral = away from the midline  Proximal = towards the centre/trunk of the body  Distal = away from the centre/trunk of the body  Superior = above  Inferior = below  Superficial  Deep  Anterior = the front of the body  Posterior = back of the body  Ventral = another word for Anterior  Dorsal = another word for Posterior (back of body)  Cranial = towards the head  Caudal = towards the tail (or butt for humans)  Dorsal = a surface facing superiorly (up)  Palmar/Plantar = a surface facing inferiorly (down) Axes of Rotation Flexion-Extension find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Rotates on Medial-Lateral (ML) axis  Motion is parallel to the sagittal plane  Flexion is decreasing the angle between two segments, extension is increasing the angle Internal/External Rotation  Rotates about the superior-inferior axis  Movement is parallel to the transverse plane  Internal can also be referred to as medial rotation and external as lateral rotation  Teacher’s example: Similar to a door opening. Both rotate on the superior-inferior axis (hinges) and move parallel to the transverse plane (the floor) Abduction-Adduction  Rotates on the Anterior-Posterior (AP) Axis  Moves parallel to the frontal plane  Abduction is moving away from the midline, Adduction involves “adding” the body part back toward the midline Circumduction  Any combination of two or more of the above types of movement find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Upper Extremity Bones Included bones are:  Clavicle (collar bone)  Scapula  Humerus  Ulna (proximal in forearm)  Radius (distal in forearm)  Carpals  Metacarpals  Phalanges Joints Sternoclavicular Joint:  Includes the Medial Clavicle and the Superolateral sternum  A saddle joint so it’s very stable and has very little mobility  The connection between the axial (skull, spine, and ribs) skeleton & the appendicular skeleton Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint:  Includes the Lateral Clavicle and the Superior Scapula  A gliding (plane) joint  3 levels of separation o Grade 1 is only a slight tear of one ligament o Grade 2 is a complete tear of one ligament o Grade 3 is a complete tear of all ligaments  Allows for scapular motion o Can be elevated, depressed, protracted, retracted, and rotated (rotation goes with abduction/adduction, can’t do one without the other) o Depressed in anatomical position o All movement is on the frontal plane Glenohumeral Joint:  Includes the Superior Humerus and the Lateral Scapula (glenoid fossa)  Is a ball and socket joint o Highly mobile but low stability o Allows for all 3 forms of movement (details about axes and planes of motion in notes from previous lecture)  Glenoid Labrum is a thick piece of cartilage the increases the depth of the Glenoid fossa Humeroulnar Joint:  Includes Distal (inferior) Humerus and Proximal (superior) Ulna  A hinge joint o Only allows for one type of movement, in this case flexion-extension find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Humeroradial Joint:  Includes the Distal (inferior) humerus and the Proximal (superior) radius  Also a hinge joint  Together with the Humeroulnar joint it makes up the elbow joint Radioulnar Joint:  Composed of the Proximal/distal ulna and the proximal/distal radius  Pivot joint o Allows for pronation (internal/medial rotation) and supination (external/lateral rotation)  The radius rotates about the distal aspect of the ulna through use of the Annular ligament Radiocarpal Joint:  A Condyloid Joint has a convex piece joined to a concave piece o The concave end of the radius is joined to the convex Scaphoid and Lunate  Able to move in both flexion-extension and abduction/adduction o Abduction also called greater radial deviation, adduction is called greater ulnar deviation Metacarpophalangeal Joints:  Condyloid joints o Convex metacarpal, concave phalanx  Flexion/extension and abduction-adduction, but no rotation  1st MCP Joint is slightly different o Flexion/extension is parallel to the frontal plane (moves about the AP axis) o Abducion-adduction is parallel to the sagittal plane (moves on the ML axis) Bones in The Hand Carpals:  Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezium, Trapezoid, Hamate, Capitate  Remember as “Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can’t Handle” Metacarpals:  Numbered 1-5 from distal to proximal  Each one has a base, shaft, and head Phalanges:  Numbered identically to the metacarpals  1st phalange has a proximal and distal phalanx  All other phalanges have proximal, middle, and distal phalanx o Phalanges are composed of phalanxes find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Lower Extremity Bones Bones include: ● Pelvis (consists of three bones which fuse into the Os Coxae at approximately age 25) ○ Illium ○ Ischium ○ Pubis ● Femur ● Tibia ○ Thicker medial bone in lower leg ● Fibula ○ Lateral bone in lower leg ● Tarsals (7 bones) ● Metatarsals (5 bones) ● Phalanges (14 bones) Pelvic Bones ● Ilium is the most superior of the bones ● Ischium is the most posterior ● Pubis is the most anterior ● All three bones join at the acetabulum ○ ‘Socket’ part of the ball and socket hip joint Acetabulum: ● Name means ‘vinegar cup’ ● Formed by all three Os Coxae bones ○ Ilium forms the superior aspect ○ Ischium forms posterior inferior aspect ○ Pubis forms anterior inferior aspect ● Articulates with the head of the femur with three points to allow for neurovascular bundle around the femoral head ○ Acetabular notch ○ Acetabular fossa (fossa means depression) ○ Lunate surface (lunate refers to a texture similar to that of the moon aka cratered/rough, not smooth) Pelvic Structure ● Pelvic basin is formed by the: ○ Symphysis Pubis ■ Symphysis (means containing cartilage) joint with fibrocartilage pad ○ Sacroiliac joint find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com ■ Syndesmosis joint ● Defined as a fibrous joint with greater distance between two articulating surfaces with more connective tissue ■ Includes the Sacrum which is 5 fused vertebrae ● Meant for very little movement Gender differences in pelvic structure: ● Male pelvis: ○ Larger in size ○ Has a heart shaped pelvic inlet as opposed to a female’s which is oval ○ Acetabulum faces laterally where females are slightly anterior ○ Obturator foramen is round ○ More prominent Processes ○ Pelvic outlet is narrower (90° or less) ○ ASIS (Anterior Superior Iliac Spine) are closer together ○ Symphysis pubis is longer Lower Extremity Joints Hip Joint ● Contains the Acetabulum and proximal superior femur ● Ball & Socket Joint allows for all three types of movement Knee Joint ● Made of Distal inferior femur and proximal superior tibia ● A form of modified hinge joint (condyloid) to allow for both flexion/extension and rotation ○ Convex distal aspect of femur and flat tibial plateau ○ Two menisci form the concave aspect to allow the tibia to articulate with the femoral condyles ■ Medial meniscus is ‘C’ shaped ■ Lateral meniscus is circular ● Contains a ‘screw home’ mechanism in which the knee ‘screws’ into place while in a standing position so that muscles can relax and people can stand for long periods of time Patellofemoral Joint ● Contains the distal inferior femur and the Patella ○ Patella is aesamoid bone meaning that originally it was a piece of cartilage in a tendon and grew in response to stress ● Gliding joint which facilitates flexion/extension of the knee (patella moves on frontal plane but not in a specific direction) find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com ○ Patella articulates with intercondylar groove of the femur ● Lateral facet is larger than medial facet making it more likely to subluxate laterally ○ Subluxate meaning to partially dislocate Tibiofibular Joint ● Proximal/Distal tibia articulates with proximal/distal fibula ● Syndesmosis Joint ● Connected by an Interosseous Membrane (inter = between, osseous = bone) ○ Helps to restrict movement as it is a weight/load bearing joint Foot Bones Tarsals include Calcaneus, Talus, Cuboid, Navicular, Lateral Cuneiform, Intermediate Cuneiform, and Medial Cuneiform Metatarsals are numbered the same as metacarpals Phalange are the same as in the hand Arches of the foot: ● 3 different ones ○ Medial Longitudinal has the Navicular as the ‘keystone’ ○ Lateral Longitudinal has the Cuboid as the ‘keystone’ ○ Transverse has the Intermediate Cuneiform as the ‘keystone’ ● Act as shock absorbers as well as increasing stability (stability is less important than the shock absorption) Joints in the foot Talocrural joint ● One of the most congruent joints in the body ● Includes the Talus, Tibia, and Fibula ○ Talus is the most superior of the tarsal bones ● Hinge joint ● Movements are Dorsiflexion and Plantarflexion (sagittal plane and ML axis) ○ Reme
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