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KNES 259 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Posterior Longitudinal Ligament, Anterior Longitudinal Ligament, Hinge JointPremium

17 pages389 viewsFall 2016

Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KNES 259
Professor
Ronald Reed Ferber
Study Guide
Midterm

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UofC
KNES 259
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Anatomical Terminology & Planes
Regional Anatomy
Regions of the body include the:
ohead/neck
oUpper limb (extremity)
oThorax, back, abdomen
oPelvis, perineum
oLower limb (extremity)
**Anatomical Position
Everything facing forward
oPalms supinated
oAnkles dorsiflexed and toes facing forward
Anatomical planes
o3 Major ones are all 90° to each other
oSagittal planes run anterior to posterior
The important one is the midsagittal-plane (or median) which divides a
body into the left and right halves
oCoronal (or frontal) planes divide anterior and posterior
oHorizontal (or transverse) planes divide the superior and inferior aspects of the
body
**Important terms:
Note that dorsal has two possible definitions
Medial = towards the midline
Lateral = away from the midline
Proximal = towards the centre/trunk of the body
Distal = away from the centre/trunk of the body
Superior = above
Inferior = below
Superficial
Deep
Anterior = the front of the body
Posterior = back of the body
Ventral = another word for Anterior
Dorsal = another word for Posterior (back of body)
Cranial = towards the head
Caudal = towards the tail (or butt for humans)
Dorsal = a surface facing superiorly (up)
Palmar/Plantar = a surface facing inferiorly (down)
Axes of Rotation
Flexion-Extension
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Rotates on Medial-Lateral (ML) axis
Motion is parallel to the sagittal plane
Flexion is decreasing the angle between two segments, extension is increasing the angle
Internal/External Rotation
Rotates about the superior-inferior axis
Movement is parallel to the transverse plane
Internal can also be referred to as medial rotation and external as lateral rotation
Teacher’s example: Similar to a door opening. Both rotate on the superior-inferior axis
(hinges) and move parallel to the transverse plane (the floor)
Abduction-Adduction
Rotates on the Anterior-Posterior (AP) Axis
Moves parallel to the frontal plane
Abduction is moving away from the midline, Adduction involves “adding” the body part
back toward the midline
Circumduction
Any combination of two or more of the above types of movement
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