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[KNES 260] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 21 pages long Study Guide!
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21 Pages
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Winter 2017

Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KNES 260
Professor
Ronald Reed Ferber
Study Guide
Midterm

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UofC
KNES 260
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Blood Vessels
There are 3 main divisions of blood vessels:
Arteries: carry blood away from the heart
3 layers/tunicas (tunica means jacket):
Tunica externa is the thickest, external layer meant for protection
Tunica media is composed of smooth muscle
Tunica interna is the thinnest inner layer which provides a smooth inner
surface, and has elastic lamina to maintain the lumen (lumen is the space
inside a hollow organ or vessel)
Arteries are the largest followed by arterioles and then capillaries which are the
smallest
3 main types of arteries are
Elastic: largest arteries which allow for a lot of expansion between heart
beats
Ex: abdominal aorta
Muscular: most other peripheral arteries, they have a thicker/more
developed tunica media so they can constrict and control blood flow to
different areas of the body
Ex: the femoral artery
Arterioles: have the thickest tunica media and a very narrow lumen
(lumina = plural)
MAIN SITE OF BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION
Veins: carry blood to the heart
Veins are largest, followed by Venules, and then Capillaries
Similar structure to arteries except:
Tunica externa and media are thinner due to less pressure and stimulation
Valves are in the lumen so as to direct blood flow
3 types of veins
Large veins have a well developed tunica externa (in relation to other
veins) and wide bundles of smooth muscle
Ex: Inferior Vena Cava
Medium veins have valves to maintain the direction of blood flow
Musculovenous pump: a system in which the blood in veins is
pumped back to the heart not using an actual pump, but using the
strength of the muscles surrounding the veins
Ex: Great Saphenous Vein (in medial thigh and shank)
Small veins (Venules)
Unite to form venous plexuses (plexus = group, a venous plexus is
a group of veins)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Capillaries: tubes made from a layer of square endothelial cells, arranged in networks
called capillary beds
Exchange O2, nutrients, CO2, etc. with environment through diffusion
Lumen has the diameter of a single red blood cell
Mediastinum
The mediastinum is the space between the pulmonary cavities
Pulmonary cavity: the maximum possible space an inflated lung can fill
It is covered on each side by the mediastinal pleura which is continuous with the linings
of the lungs, heart, and diaphragm
Heart
The heart is surrounded by the Pericardium which has two layers:
The fibrous pericardium is a tough outer layer that prevents the heart from over-
expanding
The serous pericardium is deeper and has two sub-layers
The visceral layer is the most internal
The parietal layer is against the fibrous pericardium
Between the pericardium and the heart (in the pericardial cavity) is fluid which allows the
heart to float in a frictionless environment like the brain
The heart has 3 tissue layers:
The epicardium is a thin external layer which reduces friction with it’s surrounding
environment
The myocardium is the middle layer which is composed of cardiac muscle
It’s ~98% of the heart walls
The endocardium is the most internal layer which protects the myocardium
The heart is typically divided into left/right and atrium/ventricle
The right side receives deoxygenated blood from general circulation and sends it to the
pulmonary circuit
The left side receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circuit and sends it to
general circulation
Also slightly more posterior than the right side
Atrium is where blood enters the heart
Has very smooth and thin walls
The muscular tissue which causes the atrium to contract is the musculi pectinati
The interatrial septum is called the Fossa Ovalis
Foramen ovale in a fetus as the heart hasn’t fully developed yet
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
[KNES 260] Comprehensive Midterm Exam guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com Blood Vessels There are 3 main divisions of blood vessels: ● Arteries: carry blood away from the heart ○ 3 layers/tunicas (tunica means jacket): ■ Tunica externa is the thickest, external layer meant for protection ■ Tunica media is composed of smooth muscle ■ Tunica interna is the thinnest inner layer which provides a smooth inner surface, and haselastic lamina to maintain the lumen (lumen is the space inside a hollow organ or vessel) ○ Arteries are the largest followed by arterioles and then capillaries which are the smallest ○ 3 main types of arteries are ■ Elastic: largest arteries which allow for a lot of expansion between heart beats ● Ex: abdominal aorta ■ Muscular: most other peripheral arteries, they have a thicker/more developed tunica media so they can constrict and control blood flow to different areas of the body ● Ex: the femoral artery ■ Arterioles: have the thickest tunica media and a very narrow lumen (lumina = plural) ● MAIN SITE OF BLOOD PRESSURE REGULATION ● Veins: carry blood to the heart ○ Veins are largest, followed by Venules, and then Capillaries ○ Similar structure to arteries except: ■ Tunica externa and media are thinner due to less pressure and stimulation ■ Valves are in the lumen so as to direct blood flow ○ 3 types of veins ■ Large veins have a well developed tunica externa (in relation to other veins) and wide bundles of smooth muscle ● Ex: Inferior Vena Cava ■ Medium veins have valves to maintain the direction of blood flow ● Musculovenous pump: a system in which the blood in veins is pumped back to the heart not using an actual pump, but using the strength of the muscles surrounding the veins ● Ex: Great Saphenous Vein (in medial thigh and shank) ■ Small veins (Venules) ● Unite to form venous plexuses (plexus = group, a venous plexus is a group of veins) find more resources at oneclass.com
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